The original copy of this article comes from www.fultonhistory.com.
 
New York Herald, October 28, 1901, page 4:
 
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY  THAT  SENDS  NO  MESSAGES  EXCEPT  BY  WIRE
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Invitations  to  Buy  Stock  in  Concern  Which  Claims  Feats  Never  Performed.
 
Inside  History  of  Effort  to  "Beat"  Herald  in  Reporting  Yacht  Races  Revealed.
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GLITTERING  WORDS  FOR  THE  UNWARY
 
ONE  COMPANY  CALLED  A  "HUMBUG"
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Plain  Tale  of  the  Imaginary  Aerial  Conversations  with  the  Herald-Marconi  Station.
 
Correspondent  Who  Was  Dubious  About  Inventing  Gets  Startling  Information.
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TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD:--
    I am anxious to buy some stock in the "Wireless Telegraphy Company," and I am told to ask you about it, as you have control of it. Will you please let me know something about it as soon as possible, and oblige    H. F  ODDIE.
No. 59 W
EST FORTY-EIGHTH STREET, October 23, 1901.
_____

    Because of this and similar inquiries it became necessary for the HERALD to call attention to certain so called wireless telephone and telegraph companies which are presenting to the public glittering prospectuses and in the advertising columns of the newspapers are exploiting their achievements, past and prospective, and soliciting the patronage of small investors in this and many other cities.
    The HERALD not only does not control any of these companies, but it is not interested, directly or indirectly, in any of them, except in so far as it is interested in repudiating the unauthorized use of its name and prestige and in protecting its readers against misrepresentation.
    Since world wide publicity was given to the HERALD'S success, in conjunction with the Marconi system, in reporting the yacht races of 1899, and in the operation of its ship news station on the Nantucket Shoals lightship, agents of concerns in no way allied either with the HERALD or with the Marconi triumphs have not scrupled to use the name of this paper to further their own ends.
    Philadelphia is the centre of the companies now most active in soliciting popular subscriptions to their stock, and there three of them have their main offices, though they are represented in New York by energetic fiscal agents. They are all offshoots of the same parent stem, which is the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, with headquarters at No. 1,345 Arch street, Philadelphia. This concern's prospectus states that it was incorporated in 1899, in Arizona territory, with a capital stock of $5,000,000, consisting of five hundred thousand shares, of a par value of $10 each, and with no preferred stock or bonds. Dr. Gehring

Personnel  of  the  Company.

    Its president is G. P. Gehring, M. D., of Philadelphia, who was formerly interested in Western gold mines and later in promoting real estate investments nearer home. Its secretary and transfer agent is William J. Moss, of No. 54 North Ninth street, who used to be a newspaper reporter in Camden, N. J., and later became an advertising agent with a Philadelphia office. Its other officers and directors include R. Leamon, M. D.; Henry S. Bass, George J. Jewell, formerly of the American District Telegraph Company; H. Shoemaker and W. Walter.
    Apart from its treasury stock, this company's chief asset consists of the rights to certain patents granted to the late Professor Dolbear, of Tufts College, Boston, supplemented by devices invented by Professor Henry Shoemaker, a young electrician of Philadelphia, a coherer patented by Professor Archie F. Collins, of Narberth, Pa., and some other contrivances.
    In the United States Circuit Court an early effort of the Dolbear claimants to drive Marconi out of the American field has ended disastrously to the Dolbear champions.
    This parent, in turn, has licensed and leased its operative privileges in much of the territory of the United States to certain subsidiary companies, each of which is now pushing the sale of its stock in its own allotted field.
    The Federal Company operates in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, and North and South Carolina.
    The New England Company operates in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Vermont, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
    The Northwestern Company operates in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Iowa.
    The Continental Company operates in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota and Alaska.
    The Federal Company has recently consolidated under that name with what was formerly the "Atlantic Company" and used to control Maryland, the Virginias, the Carolinas and the District of Columbia.
    To demonstrate the practical success of its system and the power of its instruments the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, last summer, set up a station at Galilee, on the New Jersey coast, and equipped it with a pole, wires and instruments. On September 11, with the consent and approval of Dr. Gehring, president of the company, a Philadelphia newspaper published a three column illustrated story concerning the experiments at Galilee, from which this is a specimen extract:--
Professor Collins    The plant had barely been installed and adjusted when, between five and six o'clock on the afternoon of August 15, Professor Greenleaf W. Picard suddenly discovered that the apparatus was recording on the tape machine at Galilee the telegraphic signal sent out from on board the Lucania to the NEW YORK HERALD'S station at Nantucket Shoals.
    From that hour until he close the Galilee office, at seven P. M., Professor Picard was in constant communication with the Lucania and the lightship, intercepting all of their messages backward and forward.
    Although the new plant had not yet been adequately tested, it had recorded the longest known message ever transmitted by any wireless system.
    The next day, August 16, Professors Shoemaker and Picard decided to repeat the test to which the Popoff apparatus had been so unexpectedly subjected.
    The Galilee operator was instructed, if possible, to establish communication with the Nantucket Shoals Lightship, 262 miles away. The messages exchanged between the lightship and the Lucania the preceding day were in the international code.
    In order to communicate more readily the operator at Galilee signalled the lightship to use the more familiar Morse code. Evidently the HERALD'S operator on the lightship was unable to account for this unforeseen message.
    "Who are you? Where are you?" was the startled query he addressed to the unknown operator at Galilee in the Morse code.
    "In New Jersey." was the Galilee's prompt response.
    "The hell you are!" replied the incredulous HERALD man.
    Back and forth flashed the aerial messages for some minutes, the operator on the lightship sceptical and irritated at the suspicion that he was being made the victim of a faraway practical joker, and the Galilee operator and his small audience heartily amused at the outcome of their efforts to mystify their rival off the coast of Massachusetts.
    At length, unable to get any definite information about the location and identity of his strange correspondent, the man at the lightship lost his patience.
    "Here, you people are interfering with our system. Keep off!" he wired, and with that he would have no more to do with the intruder from Galilee.

The  Exploding  of  a  Yarn.

    Of his charming bit of press work it is enough to say that the HERALD has dignified it by investigating it thoroughly; that Mr. Hepworth, the Marconi operator on board the Lucania, is authority for the statement that neither on August 15, nor at any other time was he or his ship in communication with Galilee, N. J., and that the HERALD operators on the Nantucket Shoals Lightship deny emphatically that any such incident ever occurred and pronounce the romance one without a shred of foundation in fact.
    Galilee's marvellous exploit, nevertheless, has been made the basis of much well directed advertising. The distance soon grew from 262 to 287 miles. Here is a sample clipped from the columns of a Boston newspaper, and admittedly written by Thomas B. Bishop, the general manager and active head of the New England Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company:--
    Our company has been receiving messages from a distance of 287 miles. Thus "wireless" messages have started on their commercial course.
    And still the distance spanned continues to grow. On October 9, a local agent of the same company announces in the Gloucester (Mass.) Times that it has grown to three hundred miles. The newspaper, quoting the agent, says:--
    The telegraph companies and the Associated Press, including the NEW YORK HERALD, know that they (the company) can take the messages for about three hundred miles and get perfect work from the system. This is worth a good deal to the New England company, because the telegraph and Associated Press must use its service in the future. Now is the time to secure the stock, which cannot fail from (sic) proving a big investment for those who take hold early.
    Of course "the Associated Press, including the NEW YORK HERALD" does not know anything of the kind. The real opinion of the Associated Press was voiced by its general manager, when he wrote to the New England company's representative a week ago:--
    "I am not favorably impressed with the methods of your company, and I do not think we would care to have any dealings with it."

The  Clash  at  the  Yacht  Races.

    Elaborate preparations were made by the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company to report the recent international yacht races in competition with the Marconi system, which was utilized by the Associated Press. Since the conclusion of the races the Philadelphia concern and its allied companies have been "pointing with pride" to the successful transmission and the marvellous accuracy of the bulletins received at their Galilee station.
    Melville E. Stone, general manager of the Associated Press, had arranged with Signor Marconi for the use of his apparatus, and had chartered the fast steam yacht Mindora, which had been granted a place as one of the patrol fleet. Galilee station
    On the Tuesday preceding the first attempt to race the Mindora went out for testing purposes and for a sort of dress rehearsal to get in touch with the Associated Press receiving stations which had been erected, one at Long Beach and one on the Navesink Highland. Off the Hook the Mindora sighted an old schooner called the Maid of the Mist, the foremast of which had been rigged with a wireless telegraph apparatus. Dr. Gehring's company had chartered the schooner, sailed it around from the Delaware, fitted it up with their own apparatus and then hired the tugboat William J. Sewell to tow it around during the races.
    Dr. Gehring, meantime, had persuaded certain newspapers to agree to take his race bulletins without cost to them, and thereby had gained considerable advertising for his company. Overtures to Mr. Stone, of the Associated Press, had been made not only by Dr. Gehring's company but by another concern represented by Professor Freeman, of the Armour Institute of Chicago, both of whom wanted to supply the Associated Press bulletins of the races. These offers were declined for the dual reason that an arrangement had already been made with Marconi, and because Mr. Stone regarded the other ventures as experimental in character and as not having publicly demonstrated their efficiency.
    Such was the situation when, to the surprise of the Associated Press operators on the Mindora down the bay, the Marconi receiving apparatus began to record such messages as "To hell with Marconi," and various profane and obscene phrases, which were found to emanate from the old schooner Maid of the Mist.
    The Chicago concern, which is officially designated as the "American Wireless Telegraph Company," had a boat also entered in the competition--the Edna V. Crew. This craft was equipped with a sending apparatus invented by Professor Freeman, of Chicago, and a receiver invented by a Newark electrician named De Forest. The Freeman-De Forest combination had obtained the contract to supply bulletins to the Publishers' Press Association and had erected a receiving station at Seabright, which was afterward transferred to Sandy Hook.
    Describing his experience with these rivals, Mr. Stone, general manager of the Associated Press, said:--
    "We found from the very first that we could do no satisfactory work, because the other systems were blocking us by continually sending out electrical waves that neutralized ours and made them meaningless. As any electrician will tell you, a novice equipped with the proper instrument and a pole and wire may simply hold his thumb on a telegraph key, or even tie it down, and thus generate electric waves that will make the more intelligent efforts of a wireless operator within the radius of influence utterly abortive. We found that the Philadelphia American Wireless people were sitting at a key sending dots by the hour, which, while perfectly meaningless, so obstructed us that we could not get anything through.
    "We steamed up to the schooner and asked them if they would not desist from their interference, but they said that they were making their tests, just as we were making ours, and they refused to make any concessions. I saw that if this sort of interference were maintained throughout the race days we might as well abandon the efforts to send accurate bulletins by wireless telegraphy and have recourse to the other methods of reporting. This would force us to disappoint and practically to break faith with the twenty-three hundred newspapers which take our service.
    "It looked to me like an alternative, necessity of yielding something to the obstructors or else losing everything, through their persistent interference. I disliked exceedingly to make any concession to this sort of enterprise. My first impulse was to man our shore stations with an efficient corps of men, as we used to do years ago, to trust to them for our reports and then to run the Marconi apparatus right along and block everybody indiscriminately. But it appeared to be wiser to try to arrange some sort of an understanding.
    "On Thursday, the day of the first race--or attempt to race--we had a rather mixed time of it, but by a sort of compromise we succeeded in getting through considerable stuff.
    "We made an agreement with the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph people from Philadelphia that they could run a wire from their station at Galilee, near Long Branch, directly into our office; that I would wire to them our Marconi bulletins, received direct from the course, and they could use our bulletins as their own by rewriting or rewiring them directly to their newspapers which they had agreed to serve. They were to desist from further interference with us, but could keep their boat sailing around the course for show purposes if they so desired.
    "In consideration of this agreement we further consented to send out an Associated Press bulletin giving to them joint mention with Marconi in connection with our race service. This bulletin was sent over our Wires on September 27. It read:--
    The bulletins upon the international yacht race are taken by wireless telegraph, by co-operation of the Marconi Company, of London, England, and the American Wireless Telegraph Company, of Philadelphia, Pa.
    Mr. Stone was mistrustful of his Philadelphia rivals, and on September 27 he had one of his colleagues, who had previously gone to Galilee to make the agreement, call up Dr. Gehring at Galilee on the long distance telephone. In order to ratify the verbal agreement and to get it on record Mr. Stone had connected his end of the telephone wire with a receiver clamped to the head of a stenographer, who took verbatim the conversation that followed. This is the record, as Mr. Stone preserved it. Dr. Gehring being designated by "Dr." and the Associated Press representative by the letters "A. P."

Once  the  Wire  Was  Used.

    A. P.--Is that you, Doctor Gehring?
    Dr.--Yes.
    A. P.--Doctor, I think we can make that arrangement we proposed yesterday--that is, that we will serve the Marconi bulletins at this office at your expense.
    Dr.--Yes? On the same wire we send on?
    A. P.--Yes, we can send it on that wire, or by the regular Western Union wire.
    Dr.--Would you send by the regular Western Union wire?
    A. P.--It would be better on your wire direct from this office, so there would be no delay. Now the condition is that you are to dismantle your boat, that you will take the coil out of it. Will you agree to do this, as I understood you yesterday?
    Dr.--Yes, I will agree to that; the boat will sail around, but we will not take our coil out of it. I will agree to just what I said yesterday, if the Associated Press will give out to-morrow morning that they will report the day's races by the Marconi and American Wireless Telegraph Company, so that it will be in the newspapers and we will see the statement.
    A. P.--Oh, no, Doctor. That is not what we talked about yesterday. We can send out such a statement, but we cannot make the papers print it. We sent out such a statement yesterday. You will get due credit for it all right. You will be able to take the Marconi bulletins and do as you please with them.
    Dr.--We will have our men on the boat, though, so that if things don't go right we will have everything ready to operate.
    A. P.--We will send you the Marconi bulletins as soon as they are received.
    Dr.--Will you confirm this by letter to that effect?
    A. P.--Oh, no. You said yesterday that you would take my personal assurance for this.
    Dr.--Well, suppose we would do that, would we get the bulletins from you promptly?
    A. P.--We will give you the bulletins as quick as we get them.
    Dr.--Well, we still will do that, then. If you will send them to us the minute that you get them.
    A. P.--Then you will agree to stop your men from doing anything?
    Dr.--Well, we will have our men ready, so that if you do make a mistake and fail to give us the bulletins we will start our men.
    A. P.--But so long as we send you the bulletins you will agree not to do anything; that is not to send anything. You must instruct your men on the boat not to send anything from your boat to-morrow, and you will agree not to send anything from the shore out, either to the boat or from the boat to the shore, at any of your stations.
    Dr.--Yes, we will agree to this if you will send us the bulletins.
    A. P.--Yes. I will fix it up with the Marconi people to give you a copy of the Marconi bulletins that come to us.
    Dr.--All right; we will agree to this if you will fix them up, and we will agree not to send out anything.
    A. P.--Goodby.
    Dr.--Goodby. Federal Wireless Stock Certificate

Persistent  Annoyance.

    This agreement, Mr. Stone says, was carried out to the letter by the Associated Press, but not by the men on the Maid of the Mist, who at times up to the very last race day continued to operate their wire, much to the annoyance of the men on the Mindora and at the Associated Press shore stations. Continuing his narrative, Mr. Stone said:--
    "Having arranged this, as we supposed, we next turned to deal with Professor Freeman, who was operating for the Publishers' Press, and finally adjusted affairs with him upon the basis of each of us taking an alternate five minutes. This operated very well until about three o'clock on one race day, when they 'jammed' us for about half an hour. Finally, at the finish, at a moment when we were clearly entitled to the wire, the temptation was too much for them and they broke in, confusing our bulletin so that it read:--'Columbia crossed finish line at 3:31:07. Shamrock crossed finish line at 3:31:04.'
    "The receiving operators at both the Marconi land stations reported promptly that they had been interrupted by the opposition wireless company at this moment, but that they regarded this as correct. We therefore sent it out. A few moments later, after querying our boat, we got a reply giving the correct time of the Shamrock's crossing the line as 3:31:44, instead of 3:31:04. This was important, because the first bulletin put the Shamrock across the line first and gave the race to the Columbia on her time allowance only, while the correct figures gave the Columbia the race independent of her time allowance. The error caused momentary confusion, but it was promptly corrected."
    At the conclusion of the races the Electrical World and Engineer of this city printed a review of the wireless telegraphy systems used in reporting the races. It described at some length the operation of the Marconi apparatus and the De Forest system. Its sole reference to Dr. Gehring's efforts was in this paragraph:--
    More or less annoyance and trouble were experienced, through the interference of another system of wireless telegraph; in fact, there were three systems in use. The second was that known as the De Forest system, and was used by the Publishers' Press Association. In order that both systems might be used without interfering with each other, it was agreed that the time be divided between the two, the Associated Press taking five minutes and the Publishers' Press the next five minutes, and so on, alternately. The plan worked all right for a time until the third system appeared on the scene. The third party was very unwelcome, and seems to have had no other purpose in view than to upset the carefully arranged plans of the two press associations. The result was that while the third man was sending out his waves the other two systems were hors de combat.
    While the yacht races were in progress one of the men who came to New York to satisfy himself of the workings of Dr. Gehring's apparatus was Thomas B. Bishop, who, though nominally only the vice president and general manager of the New England Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, is really the active head of that concern. It is one of the offshoots of the parent company, and has an office in Boston, as well as the one where Mr. Bishop personally presides in the Girard Trust Building, at Broad and Chestnut streets, Philadelphia.
    Mr. Bishop met Mr. Stone, the Associated Press manager, in the office of Edward H. Moeran, No. 34 Pine street, the attorney for the Marconi company in New York, and endeavored to make amicable overtures to both gentlemen. Mr. Moeran waved him aside and referred to Mr. Bishop's associates as "humbugs." Mr. Bishop became angry, and promised Mr. Moeran that his New England company would drive Marconi and the HERALD out of business at Nantucket and Siasconset. Then Mr. Bishop turned to the general manager of the Associated Press and sought to enlist his interest in the New England company's plans. Mr. Stone told him in plain terms that he regarded Mr. Bishop as a man associated with a gang of blackmailers and refused to have any dealings with him.
    Despite this rebuff, Mr. Bishop, as recently as October 15, wrote to Mr. Stone this letter:--
MELVILLE E. STONE, Esq., General Manager Associated Press, Western Union Building, New York:--
    DEAR SIR--It had been my intention to call upon you to discuss the probabilities and possibilities of a plan for reporting the arrival and departure of the transatlantic steamers in which the Associated Press of the country will stand at least on an equality, if not somewhat in advance of the NEW YORK HERALD'S reports. The newspapers of the country naturally want to be on a level with the HERALD, and your association is anxious to gather all the news which you may be able to sell at a profit. As I mentioned to you when I met you at Mr. Moeran's office, individually I had nothing to do with any "wireless" matters outside of the New England States. I also said to you in the presence of Mr. Moeran that the New England company, of which I am general manager, owns the basic patent, in which the government, in 1886, had granted to Professor Dolbear the right of ground potentialities in connection with a "wireless telegraph." The Marconi company is infringing upon these rights.
    Now you, as an association, which is natural for me to suppose, would rather patronize a home industry, if it is equal in its capacity, and especially protected by patents. Now, here is an opportunity to place our instruments on all transatlantic ships, and have our stations, we believe, on the mainland, and save the telegraph and cable system which the HERALD is now using, and build up a large, profitable business for your association, and a reputation, and possibly some profits to ourselves,
    As I stated in the beginning, it was my intention to call upon you, but sickness has prevented me from doing so, and, not being quite able to come to New York, I now write you upon the matter. Here is an opportunity which I believe we can make very much to your advantage, and if you consider the idea favorably, would it not be possible for you to come here? I would ask you to please bear in mind that, as I said before, individually I am the only person who can make terms in this matter, and such as I believe will induce you to join us in this new enterprise.
    Awaiting your early reply, I am yours truly.
                          THOMAS  B.  BISHOP
Vice P. and Gen'l Manager N. E. W. T. & T. Co.
    To this letter Mr. Slone replied two days later:--
    DEAR SIR:--I have yours of the 15th inst., and beg to say in reply that I am not favorably impressed with the methods of your company, and I do not think we would care to have any dealings with it.               Very sincerely yours,
    MELVILLE  E.  STONE, General Manager.
    As president and nominal head of the New England Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, Mr. Bishop has secured the services of James N. Huston, to whom Mr. Bishop and his colleagues refer habitually as "General" Huston. Mr. Huston was once a leading and influential republican politician of Indiana, and President Harrison rewarded his services as chairman of the Indiana State Committee by appointing him United States Treasurer. On all the New England company's advertising literature Mr. Huston's former position of trust is duly exploited beneath his name.

"General"  Huston's  Name  Used.

    Mr. Huston did not fill out the term of President Harrison in his post as treasurer. There was much friction between him and the president, and he retired from office and was succeeded by Enos H. Nebeker, in 1891. In 1893 the General's bank, the Citizens' Bank, of Connersville, Ind., closed its doors. In 1896 the General made a personal assignment of all his real and personal property for the benefit of his creditors, and his bank, which had resumed, again closed its doors.
    Mr. Huston's misfortunes were attributed to unwise speculative ventures and injudicious investments, though he denied this at the time. Since then he and his former title have figured in the prospectuses of various companies, which appeal to small investors through rose colored advertisements. He is the president of the Anglo-American Oil and Gas Company, one of a glittering galaxy of Texas concerns, whose exploitation has followed the discovery of petroleum in the Lone Star State, and whose methods of promoting stock sales were described not long ago the columns of the HERALD.
    At that time Mr. Huston could not be found in New York, though having a nominal residence here. His associates in the oil company reported that he was in Beaumont, Texas. The latest New York directory gives his residence at No. 159 West Eighty-fourth street, but he is unknown there. Mr. Bishop, when seen in Philadelphia, yesterday, said that the General had recently been quite ill in a New York hospital, and since then had been living in quiet retirement with a daughter. Mr. Bishop admitted that he himself is the active head of the concern, and that he had not yet found it necessary to have a cumbrous board of directors. Associated with him is his son, C. B. Bishop, who acts as treasurer. The directors are President Huston and the Bishops--father and son.
    When I called upon Dr. Gehring and Secretary Moss, of the "parent" company, in Philadelphia, they maintained that their yacht race bulletins had been superior to those of the Associated Press, and that the co-operative scheme was entered into only at the urgent solicitation of the Associated Press. Dr. Gehring asserted that he had never waived the reserved right to send five messages daily from his boat, though that reservation did not appear in the stenographic report of the long distance telephone interview, which I showed to him. Dr. Gehring's explanation is that he had made that arrangement personally the day before with the Associated Press representative, who had called on him at his Galilee station, and that representative was the same one who afterward talked to him over the long distance telephone.

Justifies  His  "Dots."

    Dr. Gehring resented Mr. Stone's characterization of the Philadelphia concern's dots as "utterly meaningless," and said that while utterly meaningless doubtless to Mr. Stone they were full of meaning to those equipped with the proper code for understanding them.
    In the prospectuses of the Federal company appears a photograph which was originally that of Professor Archie F. Collins. He appears in the act of conducting, with Dr. Gehring, some wireless telephone experiments. Professor Collins, some years ago, sold to the parent company the rights to one or two of his inventions. Since then he has had no other connection with their affairs, though they continue to exploit his name and achievements in their literature.
    Professor Collins has a massive head, covered with thick, bushy, dark hair, and a beard of like character. When he saw his photograph utilized in the prospectus his counsel forced the promoters of the wireless company to so remove the hair from the picture so as to make Professor Collins wholly unrecognizable to even his best friend. That is why he appears in more recent prospectuses as a very bald man with closely cropped Van Dyke beard.
    Dr. Gehring's likeness, however, is excellent.