Radio Service Bulletin, April 2, 1923, pages 9-13:
 
 
RECOMMENDATIONS  OF  THE  NATIONAL  RADIO  COMMITTEE.

    Secretary Hoover stated that the recommendations by the radio conference represent a step in ideal development of measures for the prevention of interference in public broadcasting.
    The report recommends making available all wave lengths from 222 to 545 meters for public broadcasting, the various possible bands to be assigned to different stations, so as not only to reduce direct interference but also to build up zonal regions of distribution.
    The department fully accepts the recommendations of the conference, but there are a number of difficulties in placing the plan abruptly into action. First, the hardship that it may cause to various stations to move arbitrarily to new wave lengths. Second, the difficulties introduced by the ship-to-shore communication which is now working to some extent on 300 meters and also on 450 meters.
    The conference recommended that the ultimate development for ship communication be to assign for the general purpose of shipping the whole wave area from 600 to 800 meters, different bands being allotted within this area for different shipping purposes. The distress signals from ships now work on 600 meters and the radio compass works on 800 meters. The ship-to-shore communications on 300 and 450 meters are altogether commercial traffic and would be more advantageously carried on with less interruption than to-day if these services were given the entire field around 700 meters.
    In order to make progress in this direction of developing the area from 600 to 800 for ship communication it is proposed that all ships and all shore stations used for ship communications shall cease using 450 meters between the hours of 7 and 11 p. m., but may use 700 meters at this or any other time, The 300 meters wave length now assigned under the international convention is very little used and will be used for inland broadcasting and it is not expected that the ships will avail themselves of the international agreement in this particular as it has not proved of practical advantage except to a limited extent.
    For internal broadcasting the department proposes to cooperate with the various stations with a view to developing a systematic assignment of wave lengths to the various stations within the broad confines of the recommendations of the conference. In order to carry this out without hardship the following classification of stations will be made:
    Class A stations (that is, stations equipped to use power not exceeding 500 watts).--In this class, it is proposed that the radio inspectors, in cooperation with the station owners, shall assign distinctive wave lengths to each station so far as is possible in the area from 222 to 300 meters. No station will be required to change from 360 unless it so desires.
    Class B stations (that is, stations equipped to use from 500 to 1,000 watts).--In this class it is proposed to similarly offer to license these stations on special wave lengths from 300 to 345 and from 375 to 545 meters, having regard to the maintenance of some ship work on 450 meters as outlined above, and again no station will be required to change from 360 unless it so desires.
    Class C stations (comprising all stations now licensed for 360 meters).--In this class no new licenses will be issued for stations on 360 meters until the plan is entirely realized. Stations which do not wish to move under the general plan may remain at 360 meters, but they will necessarily be subject to some interference at best. It is thought that by the above plan the stations can be gradually brought into accord without hardships.
    Under the plan amateurs are given the whole area from 150 to 220, instead of being fixed upon 200, with special licenses at 375. The special licenses hitherto issued for amateurs at 375 will now be issued at 220. Certain special cases will be taken care of otherwise. It is proposed in cooperation with the amateur associations, to develop an assignment of wave bands in classifications, so as to somewhat relieve the present interference among amateurs. It will be remembered that the number of wave bands which can be used among the short-wave area assigned to the amateurs is greater in proportion than among the longer wave lengths, and these arrangements expand the area hitherto assigned to amateurs. The full recommendations of the conference are appended hereto. This conference was called by Secretary Hoover to consider what can be done from an administrative point of view to lessen the amount of interference in radio broadcasting. The meetings were held at the Department of Commerce on March 20 to 24, 1923.
    The members of the conference were as follows. The representatives of the Government departments were designated by the several departments, and the other members were appointed by the Secretary of Commerce: Maj Gen. George O. Squier, War Department; Com. D. C. Bingham, United States Navy, Navy Department; W. A. Wheeler, Department of Agriculture; John W. Sutherin, Post Office Department; L. J. Heath, Treasury Department; F. P. Guthrie, United States Shipping Board; Edwin H. Armstrong, Columbia University, New York; Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, secretary, Institute of Radio Engineers; Prof. L. A. Hazeltine, Stevens Institute of Technology; John V. L. Hogan, consulting radio engineer, New York; C. B. Cooper, C. B. Cooper Co., New York; Hiram Percy Maxim, president American Radio Relay League; Prof. C. M. Jansky, University of Minnesota; A. H. Griswold, American Telegraph & Telephone Co.; Leo Fitzpatrick, radio editor, Kansas City Star, D. B. Carson, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Navigation; W. D. Terrell, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Navigation; J. H. Dellinger, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards; L. E. Whittemore, Department of Commerce, Bureau of Standards.

RECOMMENDED  WAVE  ALLOCATIONS.

    It is recommended that radio stations be assigned specific wave frequencies (wave lengths) within the wave band corresponding to the service rendered as given in the following table. Throughout this report both wave frequency and wave lengths are given. Wave length in meters is 300,000 divided by wave frequency in kilocycles per second. It is recommended that wave bands marked "exclusive" be used for no other type of service; those marked "nonexclusive" can be used for other types of radio communication as indicated.
 
Wave
fre-
quency
in kilo-
cycles
per
second.
Wave
Length
in
meters.
Service. Wave
fre-
quency
in kilo-
cycles
per
second.
Wave
Length
in
meters.
Service.
Above.Below. Above.Below. 
2,300130   Reserved (see note 1).500
445
600
674
}Marine and aircraft, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
2,300130   Government, CW, exclusive.
2,300
2,100
130
143
}Reserved (see note 1).
445674   Government, CW, nonexclusive.
445
375
674
800
}Marine and aircraft, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
2,100143   Government, CW, exclusive.
2,100
2,000
143
150
}Reserved (see note 1).
375800   Radio compass, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
375
315
800
952
}Marine, Ph, exclusive.
2,000
1,700
150
176
}Amateur, CW, ICW, Ph, exclusive.
315952   Government, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
1,700
1,500
176
200
}Amateur, CW, ICW, Ph, Spk, exclusive.
315
300
952
1,000
}Reserved.
1,500
1,350
200
222
}Special amateur and technical and training schools, CW, exclusive.
3001,000   Radio beacons, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
300
285
1,000
1,053
}Reserved.
1,350
1,300
222
231
}Aircraft, CW, ICW, Spk, Ph, nonexclusive.
285
275
1,053
1,091
}Marine, Ph, exclusive.
1,350
1,050
222
286
}Class B broadcasting, Ph, nonexclusive (see note 2).
2751,091   Government, CW, ICW, nonexclusive.
1,050
1,040
286
288
}Reserved.
275
250
1,091
1,200
}Marine, Ph, exclusive.
1,040
1,000
288
300
}Class A broadcasting, Ph, exclusive (see note 3).
2501,200   Government, CW, ICW, nonexclusive.
250
235
1,200
1,277
}Marine, Ph, exclusive.
1,000300   Marine, CW, ICW, Spk, nonexclusive. (see note 4).
1,000
667
300
450
}Class A broadcasting, Ph., exclusive (see note 3).
235
230
1,277
1,304
}University, college, and experimental, CW, ICW, exclusive.
667450   Marine, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive (see note 5). 230
190
1,304
1,579
}Government, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
667
550
450
545
}Class A broadcasting, Ph, exclusive (see note 3).
190
120
1,579
2,500
}Marine and point-to-point, non-Government, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
550
500
545
600
}Marine and aircraft, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
120
95
2,500
3,158
}Government, CW, ICW, Spk, exclusive.
500600   Marine and aircraft, CW, ICW, exclusive (see note 4).

    NOTE 1.--Available for special licensing by the Department of Commerce.
    NOTE 2.--Not more than six CW amateur stations to be licensed to use wave frequencies above 1,050 (wave lengths below 286 meters) for communication across natural barriers.
    NOTE 3.--A class A broadcasting station is a station of sufficient power to serve an extensive territory. Fifty territorial wave frequencies approximately 10 kc./s. apart are to be assigned by the Department of Commerce to local areas throughout the United States without duplication. The 10 such areas within each of 5 national zones are to have wave frequencies separated by approximately 50 kc./s.
    NOTE 4.--The 1,000 and 500 kc./s. (300 and 600 meters) waves are for calling and distress purposes, with a minimum of traffic.
    NOTE 5.--Mobile service on the 667 kc./s. (450 meters) is to be stopped between 7 and 11 p. m., local standard time, and to be transferred in so far and as soon as practicable to wave frequencies below 500 kc./s. (wave lengths above 600 meters).

RESOLUTIONS.

    That this conference, and the Department of Commerce subsequently, follow the practice of expressing wave frequency in kilocycles per second, with wave length in meters in parentheses thereafter
    That in assigning a wave band of 10,000 cycles to each class A broadcasting station they be distributed over five zones throughout the country, such that no stations in adjacent zones are closer together in frequency than 20 kilocycles, and that within each zone there be 10 stations separated by 50 kilocycles.
    That only one wave frequency be assigned to a class A broadcasting station, which should transmit exclusively on the wave frequency designated and reserved exclusively for that station.
    That every broadcasting station should be equipped with apparatus such as a tuned circuit coupled to the antenna and containing an indicating instrument or the equivalent for the purpose of maintaining the operating wave frequency within 2 kilocycles of the assigned wave frequency.
    That the Department of Commerce establish qualifications for class A broadcasting stations, including a general minimum and locally suitable maximum power and a quality of program that will warrant assignment of a territorial wave frequency to each particular station, and that the qualifications be similar to those required of the present class B broadcasting stations.
    That the Department of Commerce in its discretion assign class B broadcasting station licenses in which wave frequencies shall be specified and in which the power ratio between the class A and B stations shall be at least two in so far as is practical for a given locality.
    That in granting licenses it is recommended that the Department of Commerce limit the use of power where undue interference would otherwise be caused.
    That reading of telegrams or letters by broadcasting stations be not construed as point-to-point communication so long as the signer is not addressed in person and long as the text matter is of general interest.
    That simultaneous rebroadcasting shall be permitted only on a broadcasting wave frequency and with the authorization of the original broadcaster and of the Department of Commerce.
    That the Department of Commerce be requested to insist upon the suppression of harmonic and other parasitic radiation from all radio stations; as, for example, by requiring the installation, if necessary, of coupled circuit transmitters at the earliest feasible date.
    That apparatus be replaced as rapidly as practicable by apparatus which will produce a minimum of interference.
    That the amateur organizations of the United States study the time requirements of the broadcasting of religious services on Sunday and by mutual arrangement with the broadcasters determine upon silent periods which will make possible the reception of such in any given locality.
    That when the Government conducts services similar to commercial services for which waves or wave bands have been assigned the Government stations shall use the said waves or wave bands.
    That the Government have the exclusive use of a band 1 kilocycle wide centered at each of the following frequencies: 92, 83, 81, 78, and 76 kilocycles, so far as is consistent with public service generally.
    That where a line-radio installation produces interference with the reception of signals from beyond the State such line-radio station shall require a license from the Department of Commerce.
    That the subject of interference caused by devices not used for radio communication purposes and which are not subject to the present radio law be referred to the projected sectional committee of the American Engineering Standards Committee, and that in the meantime the members of the conference offer to the Department of Commerce their cooperation in the solution of such immediate problems as may be of a character in which their aid could be of value.
    That, in the judgment of the Second National Radio Conference, the prevention of "willful or malicious interference," as provided for by section 5 of the act of August 13, 1912, and the minimization of interference, as provided for by article 8 of the International Convention, require that the Department of Commerce shall, in its discretion, withhold or rescind station licenses to transmit on specified wave frequencies at certain times and on definite powers and with certain types of transmitters and when, in the judgment of the Department of Commerce, such interference would result or does result; and that it is the clear and manifest intent of section 1 through 4, and regulations 10, 12, and 18 of section 4 of the said act to give the Department of Commerce such authority to withhold or rescind licenses where such interference will result or does result; and that the Second National Radio Conference believes that a decision by the courts validating the above views will be greatly in the public interest; and that the Second National Radio Conference expresses its willingness to advise and assist the Department of Commerce in the support of the above resolutions in the event of litigation.
    That a copy of the foregoing motion be sent to each concern, organization, or association engaged in manufacture of radio equipment or broadcasting by radio or otherwise interested in radio communication with a request for an expression of approval or disapproval of the motion and an agreement to abide by its provisions.
    That the Second National Radio Conference desires to emphasize the limited facilities available for radio broadcasting and the uneconomic and tentative basis of present day broadcasting, and that the conference urges the consolidation in each locality of those desiring the establishment or maintenance of broadcasting and those interested in broadcasting in that locality, to the end that broadcasting conducted in each neighborhood by such a local association will receive public support and be handled in an economic and permanent fashion.
    That the great expansion of radio communication has not been accompanied by a proportional increase in the radio personnel and facilities at the disposal of the Bureaus of Navigation and Standards of the Department of Commerce, and that the resulting strain on the inspection and technical forces of the Department of Commerce has been excessive, and has even forced the omission of important activities and investigations, and that the Second National Radio Conference strongly recommends that additional appropriations be granted to the Department of Commerce for its radio inspection personnel and equipment and for its research personnel and facilities; that a committee of three be appointed to wait upon the Secretary of Commerce to present the urgency of this need and the importance of the early provision of funds for these bureaus.
    That the present conditions of radio interference with nonlocal reception and the resulting public dissatisfaction urgently require that the recommendations of the conference be accepted by the Secretary of Commerce and put into early operation by the Department of Commerce.