PROCEEDINGS

OF  THE

FOURTH  NATIONAL  RADIO  CONFERENCE

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR
REGULATION  OF  RADIO

·

C o n f e r e n c e   c a l l e d   b y
HERBERT  HOOVER
SECRETARY  OF  COMMERCE

·

Washington,  D. C.,  November  9-11,  1925


[SEAL.]
DEPARTMENT  OF  COMMERCE.
UNITED  STATES  OF AMERICA.


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1926

 
This is an HTML version of the original government document, Proceedings of the Fourth National Radio Conference and Recommendations for Regulation of Radio, November 9-11, 1925, issued by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C. for the Department of Commerce [C1.2:R11/925].

This HTML version is based on a photocopy of the original 42-page publication. It incorporates the original contents (except for some minor elements, such as page number references), keeping as much as possible the layout of the original document.

ORGANIZATION  OF  THE  CONFERENCE

                    HERBERT  HOOVER, Secretary of Commerce, chairman
                    STEPHEN  B.  DAVIS, Solicitor, Department of Commerce, Vice Chairman

PAUL  S.  CLAPP, Secretary
LAURENS  E.  WHITTEMORE, Assistant Secretary

|  W.  D.  TERRELL, Technical Advisor
|  ERNEST  GREENWOOD, Publicity

COMMITTEE  NO.  1:  ALLOCATION  OF  FREQUENCY  OR  WAVE-LENGTH  BANDS

Dr. J. H. Dellinger, chairman.
J. F. Dillon, secretary.
H. A. Bellows.
A. R. Belmont.
W. L. Browning.
R. N. Conwell.
Lieut. Commander T. A. M. Craven.
Henry Field.
William G. H. Finch.
Jos. D. R. Freed.
S. G. Gibbony.
A. N. Goldsmith.
A. H. Grebe.
J. V. L. Hogan.
C. W. Horn.
S. E. Hubbard.
Colin B. Kennedy.

|  F. A. Kolster.
|  Nathan Levinson.
|  George Lewis.
|  H. Lubinaky.
|  R. H. Manson.
|  H. P. Maxim.
|  F. S. Megargee.
|  I. R. Nelson.
|  E. C. Rayner.
|  W. A. Rush.
|  Eugene Sibley.
|  E. J. Simon.
|  E. M. Terry.
|  P. J. Touhy.
|  H. J. Walls.
|  W. A. Wheeler.
|

COMMITTEE  NO.  2:  ADVERTISING  AND  PUBLICITY

Commissioner D. B. Carson, chairman.
E. A. Beane, secretary.
H. J. Bligh.
H. K. Carpenter.
T. P. Convey.
H. T. DeHart.
Roy S. Durstine.
G. C. Furness.
J. Gettler.

|  W. E. Harkness.
|  George L. Israel.
|  A. F. Kales.
|  J. C. Marquis.
|  A. R. Morgan.
|  Harry Mount.
|  F. E. Mullen.
|  Douglas Rigney.
|  Miss Judith Waller.

COMMITTEE  NO.  3:  LICENSES  FOR  RADIO  STATIONS  AND  OPERATORS

Deputy Commissioner A. J. Tyrer, chairman.
S. W. Edwards, secretary.
H. W. Anderson.
F. L. Black.
John Campbell.
Credo Harris.
William H. Heinz.
L. B. Henson.

|  C. M. Jansky.
|  Lambdin Kay.
|  George Morris.
|  Hon. Morris Sheppard.
|  Ralph A. Shugart.
|  T. M. Stevens.
|  K. B. Warner.
|

COMMITTEE  NO.  4:  OPERATING  REGULATIONS

Gen. Charles McK. Saltzman, chairman.
Arthur Batcheller, secretary.
Norman Baker.
Howard E. Campbell.
Laurence Cockaday.
Stephen L. Coles.
Powel Crosley.
C. A. Culver.
Hugo Gernsback.
A. H. Halloran.

|  L. A. Hazeltine.
|  C. W. Horn.
|  A. Atwater Kent.
|  J. R. Knowland.
|  Elam Miller.
|  H. M. Neely.
|  Frank Reichman.
|  Martin P. Rice.
|  David Sarnoff.
|  C. B. Williams.

COMMITTEE  NO.  5:  MARINE

Capt. Ridley McLean, chairman.
C. C. Kolster, secretary.
Ralph Bown.
E. B. Calvert.
George S. Davis.
W. G. Logue.
H. C. Moore.

|  E. J. Simon.
|  T. M. Stevens.
|  Ellery W. Stone.
|  Lieut. Commander A. H. Tawresey.
|  A. W. Tupper.
|  William B. Vallance.
|  Lieut. E.  M. Webster.

COMMITTEE  NO.  6:  AMATEURS

Hiram P. Maxim, chairman.
R. Y. Cadmus, secretary.
H. A. Daly.
Franklin Kral.
P. C. Oscanyan, jr.

|  W. A. Parkes.
|  C. H. Stewart.
|  John R. Ward.
|  K. B. Warner.
|

COMMITTEE  NO.  7:  INTERFERENCE

Gen. G.  O. Squier, chairman.
O. B. Redfern, secretary.
G. Y. Allen.
E. H. Armstrong.
S. E. Baldwin.
W. R. G. Baker.
Dr. Louis Cohen.
R. V. Haller.
Dr. C.  B. Jolliffe.
A. E. Kennelly.
George Lewis.

|  W. G. Logue.
|  B. H. Marriott.
|  H. C. Moore.
|  F. E. Mullen.
|  I. P. Rodman.
|  O. C. Roos.
|  Dudley Shaw.
|  E. D. Tanzer.
|  Lieut. Commander A. H. Tawresey.
|  F. A. Vaughn.
|  K. B. Warner.

COMMITTEE  NO.  8:  LEGISLATION

Judge Stephen B. Davis, chairman.
W. Van Nostrand, jr., secretary.
H. W. Angus.
Earl C. Anthony.
Edgar Bill.
A. J. Carter.
Lieut. J. C. Cooper.
W. G. Cowles.
Frank W. Elliott.
Maj. Herbert Frost.
H. B. Kibler.

|  W. W. Kideney.
|  H. A. Luckey.
|  Arthur Lynch.
|  E. B. Mallory.
|  M. C. Martin.
|  E. F. McDonald.
|  Martin P. Rice.
|  J. M. Skinner.
|  C. H. Stewart.
|  Lieut. Commander A. H. Tawresey.
|  H. L. Wills.

COMMITTEE  NO.  9:  COPYRIGHT  RELATIONS  TO  BROADCASTING

Hon. Wallace H. White, chairman.
T. G. Deiler, secretary.
E. C. Anthony.1
S. E. Baldwin.1
W. A. Bauer.
A. B. Church.1
Powel Crosley.1
R. A. Ford.1

|  Walter S. Greevy.
|  W. E. Harkness.1
|  William S. Hedges.
|  Paul B. Klugh.1
|  Harry La Mertha.
|  E. F. McDonald.1
|  F. H. Pumphrey.1
|  C. H. Van Housen.

    1 Named by National Association of Broadcasters.


C O N T E N T S


1. Opening address by the Secretary of Commerce
2. Proceedings of the conference
3. Reports of committees
      Committee No. 1: General allocation of frequency or wave-length bands
      Committee No. 2: Advertising and publicity
      Committee No. 3: Licenses and classifications
      Committee No. 4: Operating regulations
      Committee No. 5: Marine problems
      Committee No. 6: Amateur problems
      Committee No. 7: Interference
      Committee No. 8: Legislation
      Committee No. 9: Copyright relations to broadcasting
 
FOURTH  NATIONAL  RADIO  CONFERENCE

PROCEEDINGS  AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR  REGULATION  OF  RADIO



1. OPENING  ADDRESS  BY  HERBERT  HOOVER,  SECRETARY  OF  COMMERCE

    This is the fourth annual occasion upon which I have had the pleasure of calling together the National Radio Conference for consultation with the Department of Commerce in the solution of the ever new problems which have developed in the growth of this astonishing industry.
    We have great reason to be proud of the results of these conferences. From them have been established principles upon which our country has led the world in the development of this service. We have accomplished this by a large measure of self-government in an art and industry of unheard of complexity, not only in its technical phases but in its relations both to the Government and the public. Four years ago we were dealing with a scientific toy; to-day we are dealing with a vital force in American life. We are, I believe, bringing this lusty child out of its swaddling clothes without any infant diseases. We have not only developed, in the conferences, traffic systems by which a vastly increasing number of messages are kept upon the air without destroying each other, but we have done much to establish the ethics of public service and the response of public confidence.
    Some of our major decisions of policy have been of far-reaching importance and have justified themselves a thousandfold. The decision that the public, through the Government, must retain the ownership of the channels through the air with just as zealous a care for open competition as we retain public ownership of our navigation channels has given freedom and development in service that would have otherwise been lost in private monopolies. The decision that we should not imitate some of our foreign colleagues with governmentally controlled broadcasting supported by a tax upon the listener has secured for us a far greater variety of programs and excellence in service free of cost to the listener. This decision has avoided the pitfalls of political, religious, and social conflicts in the use of speech over the radio which no Government could solve--it has preserved free speech to this medium.
    While we have reason to congratulate ourselves on the success of past conferences and on the results that have come from them, we still have difficulties to face and overcome; but before I come to a discussion of them it seems proper to describe some of the progress in the various branches of radio during the 12 months past. We will thus logically arrive at existing conditions and present problems which now press for solution.

TELEGRAPHIC  RADIO

EXPANSION  OF  INTERNATIONAL  COMMUNICATION  BY  RADIOTELEGRAPH

    The rapid extension in the international field by American radiotelegraph companies, which has already given us a dominant position, has continued during the past year. Public service has been inaugurated with Colombia, Honduras, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. We have reason to hope that connection with Guatemala will soon be effective, thus forging another link in the communication chain which binds us to our friends in Central America. Direct service with Sweden commenced last December, and other European, South American, and trans-Pacific services have continued their effectiveness. Enterprises have been undertaken in the Philippines and in China. Altogether we will, by another 12 months, have systematic radiotelegraphic communication with nearly every important country in the world--a matter of vast importance, for it increases the movement of ideas as well as business. We have no pressing problems before us in this field.

CLEARING  THE  BROADCASTING  BAND  OF  CODE  SIGNALS

    There has been a gratifying improvement in the character of equipment used in marine communication, which has tended somewhat to reduce annoying interference to broadcasting from this source and to improve that service itself. The recommendations made by the conference a year ago that ships and shore stations should cease to use 300 and 450 meters have been carried out as to our own vessels, and reciprocal arrangements have been entered into with Great Britain, Canada, and Newfoundland by which the vessels of those countries will no longer use these troublesome channels in Morse code communication off our coasts. I am hopeful that like understandings may be reached with other nations whose ships visit our shores. A few months ago we reached an informal agreement with Canada relating to radio use by vessels and shore stations on the Great Lakes by which 600 meters was abandoned, spark sets discouraged, and communications placed on 715 and 875 meters--one more example of the friendly cooperation between ourselves and our northern neighbor which has always characterized our radio relationships.
    The 600-meter wave length is to-day used almost exclusively for calling and distress work, there being very little other traffic handled on it. Individual working channels have been assigned to the North Atlantic coastal stations, and traffic is handled more readily and with considerably less interference. This plan is being extended to the South Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific stations. It is a very real advance both in the clearing up of another of the sources of interference with telephone broadcasting and in the introduction of more order into marine communication.

TELEPHONIC  RADIO

    It is in broadcasting, of course, that we have again seen the most important changes and in which we again develop the most pressing problems. There has been some improvement on the technical side. Better means of enabling the stations to maintain their assigned frequencies have eliminated much beat note interference. Increase in the frequency range of receiving sets is making the shorter wave lengths of the broadcasting band more available. Improvement in sets has given far greater perfection in tone and quality. Experimental work in the high frequencies is giving encouragement to the further development of the art.
    The most profound change during the year, however, has been the tremendous increase in power and the rapid multiplication of powerful stations. When the conference assembled a year ago, there were 115 stations equipped to use 500 watts or more. Now we have 197 such stations, an increase during the year of over 70 per cent. This mere numerical expansion of stations falls far short of telling the whole story. A year ago only two stations were equipped to use an excess of 500 watts. Of the new stations 32 are equipped to use 1,000 watts, 25 to use 5,000 watts, and 2 a still higher power, making 59 in all against 2 last year. Taking the situation as a whole, we find that a year ago all stations of 500 watts and over were using a total of 67,500 watts. To-day they use 236,500 watts, or a 250 per cent increase.
    A year ago we were fearful of the effect of greater power. We were told by some that the use of anything more than 1,000 watts would mean excessive blanketing, the blotting out of smaller competitors, the creation of large areas into which no other signals could enter. Some of the most pessimistic even warned us that our tubes would explode under the impact of this tremendous force. But our experience so far leads to the opinion that high power is not only harmless in these respects but advantageous. Power increase has meant a general rise in broadcasting efficiency; it has meant clearer reception; it has helped greatly to overcome static and other difficulties inherent in summer broadcasting, so as to give us improved all-year service. Whatever the limit may be, I believe that substantial power increase has come to stay, and the public is the gainer from it.

SERVICE  AREA

    Our experience during the year has somewhat more clearly defined the geographical area within which a single broadcasting station can give complete service, and by "complete service area" I mean the territory within which the average set can depend upon getting clear, understandable, and enjoyable service from the station, day or night, summer or winter. I do not include radio golf around the edge of these areas in our conception of public service--that game is an exercise of skill and the efficiency of your set plus a gamble on the radio weather, but we are not here concerned with it.
    Actual operation of high-powered stations has proven advantageous in broadening the "complete service area," but this area is much more limited than many expected. Subjected to the test of positive and reliable service at all times and all weathers, it will be found that the real effectiveness of a station falls within a comparatively small zone.
    What these maximum areas of positive service are we do not yet know with any precision. The Bureau of Standards has recently carried on some rather extensive tests and has accumulated some interesting information, though it is not yet ready to give us any definite figures. If, however, we set the most rigid standard of, say, complete service in adverse atmospheric conditions and all times of day and year for the average crystal set, then the bureau's actual intensity measurements would seem to indicate that this radius of the circle served by a 500-watt station will not exceed 10 miles, and that a 5,000-watt station will cover about 30 miles and 50,000-watt stations will not cover much over 100 miles. Obviously, more sensitive receiving sets or better atmospheric conditions at once greatly extend these distances.
    For some reason or other the area is not always a circle, as you know, and it varies in different parts of the country for the same power. The department is undertaking the important task of determining these service areas, and you will have an opportunity while here of inspecting some of the equipment we are using for this purpose. I am in hopes that we can secure the resources this year to continue the study further. It will give us information on which to base more efficient allocation of wave lengths. In any event it is obvious that, barring revolutionary discoveries, it is certain that the country must continue to be served with local stations.

SCIENTIFIC  INVESTIGATION

    No discussion of progress in radio would be complete without an appreciation of the intensive scientific and industrial research now in progress in our universities and in the great laboratories of our commercial concerns, notably the General Electric, Western Electric, Westinghouse, and others, and, I might add, in our own Bureau of Standards. The vast expenditure of money and skill in our great industrial laboratories is not only advancing the application of the art but has been conceived in a fine sense of contribution to fundamental science itself.

PROBLEMS  FOR  THE  INDUSTRY

    The problems in broadcasting are, as ever before in these conferences, of two categories--those, on the one hand, which the industry can and should solve for itself in order to safeguard the public service and its own interest and, on the other hand, those which can only be solved in cooperation with the Government; and again, as before we should find the solution of as many of our problems as we can in the first category. I have no hesitation in discussing these questions, because, as I have said, the more the industry can solve for itself the less will be the burden on the Government and the greater will be the freedom of the industry in its own development.

INTERCONNECTION

    One of the problems which we considered at the last conference was that of interconnection. This has proceeded during the year in splendid fashion without any necessity of artificial stimulation. A year ago interconnection between stations was only occasional and was a great curiosity. Now it is commonplace. It is becoming more systematized and has gone far toward the creation of long-linked systems which will finally give us universal broadcasting of nation-wide events. The number of people who throbbed with joys and sorrows at the dramatic presentation of minute-to-minute events of the world's series is one of the most astonishing landmarks in radio broadcasting.

ADVERTISING

    Another problem for solution by the industry itself and which now rests prominently on the public mind is that of advertising. There lies within it the possibility of grave harm and even vital danger to the entire broadcasting structure. The desire for publicity is the basic motive and the financial support for almost all the broadcasting in the country to-day. Publicity largely provides the cost of broadcasting which might otherwise fall upon the listener, who now pays nothing, much as the advertiser does in the case of the newspaper or magazine. Whether an individual accomplishes his purpose through the building and operating of his own station or by hiring time on one already built by somebody else makes little difference.
    But the radio listener does not have the same option that the reader of publications has--to ignore advertising in which he is not interested--and he may resent its invasion of his set. It has been pointed out over and over again in previous conferences, and it might well be reiterated by this one, that advertising in the intrusive sense will dull the interest of the listener and will thus defeat the industry. Furthermore, it can bring disaster to the very purpose of advertising if it creates resentment to the advertiser. If we can distinguish, on the one hand, between unobtrusive publicity that is accompanied by a direct service and engaging entertainment to the listener and unobtrusive advertising, on the other, we may find solution. I believe the conference could well consider a definition of this distinction all along the line.

REMOVAL  OF  STATIONS  FROM  CONGESTED  AREAS  BY  REMOTE  CONTROL

    Another problem that the industry could quite well stimulate is the removal of stations from congested centers. Blanketing of reception is inevitable within some short range of every station, and when it is in town it affects thousands of people. Remote control has developed to the point where city studios operate perfectly with the transmitters far outside the city limits. I look forward to the not distant time when all stations of sufficient size to cause disturbance will be banished from the cities and when their blanketing annoyances will cease. The conference could render a definite service by formulating proposals to that end.

PROBLEMS  FOR  SOLUTION  BY  COOPERATION  WITH  THE  GOVERNMENT

    My major purpose to-day is to discuss those problems which must be solved in cooperation with the Government.

THE  AIR  TO-DAY  OVERCROWDED

    Up to the present time we have had a policy of absolute freedom and untrammeled operation, a field open to all who wished to broadcast for whatever purpose desired. I am convinced that policy was sound. It resulted in a wonderfully extensive development which could have been obtained in no other way. We have to-day 578 stations, and as no more than four of them are under the same management no one can say there is not plenty of competition. To-day every solitary channel in the ether is occupied by at least one broadcasting station and many of them by several. Of the 578 stations 197 are using at least 500 watts of power, and there are now pending before the Department of Commerce over 175 applications for new licenses.
    Higher power has greatly strengthened the service to listeners, but it has aggravated the problem of providing lanes through the traffic, for geographical separation must be greater. Heretofore it has been possible to duplicate channels geographically to a large extent among those using 500 watts, but with the increase of power this system becomes more and more difficult, for the borderland of interference is wider spread. We must face the actualities frankly. We can no longer deal on the basis that there is room for everybody on the radio highways. There are more vehicles on the roads than can get by, and if they continue to jam in all will be stopped.
    It is a simple physical fact that we have no more channels. It is not possible to furnish them under the present state of technical development. It takes no argument to demonstrate that 89 wave lengths (and no more are available) can not be made to serve innumerable stations, no matter how ingenious we may be in arranging time divisions and geographical separations. It is not a question of what we would like to do but what we must do.
    One alternative, which would only partly solve the problem, would be to increase the number of stations by further dividing the time of the present stations down to one or two days a week or one or two hours a day. From the listener's viewpoint, and that is the only one to be considered, he would get a much degenerated service if we were to do that. It is quality of program, location, and efficiency of transmission that count. None of these will be improved, and in most cases they will be ruined by introducing more stations to traverse the same channels. A half dozen good stations in any community operating full time will give as much service in quantity and a far better service in quality than 18, each on one-third time.
    As the art progresses the capital investment in a good station has risen to upward of $150,000, and to provide technical staff, good talent, and interconnection the cost of operation has risen to as much as $100,000 per annum, and frequently even more. The costs are in large part the same whether the station works one day in a week or seven. If we impose more division of time than at present, we shall drive the best stations out of action, and the public will be more poorly served. The choice is between public interest and private desire, and we need not hesitate in making a decision. There are, of course, some stations of special character which can divide time, but they do not often lie in congested territory.
    It has been suggested that the remedy lies in widening the broadcasting band, thus permitting more channels and making it possible to provide for more stations. The vast majority of receiving sets in the country will not cover a wider band, nor could we extend it without invading the field assigned to the amateurs, of whom there are thousands and to whose constant experimentation radio development is so greatly indebted. Radio in this branch has found a part in the fine development of the American boy, and I do not believe anyone will wish to minimize his part in American life.
    If we did absorb the upper amateur band from 150 to 200 meters, it would not even solve the immediate difficulties. All these things bring us face to face with the problem which we have all along dreaded and for which we have hoped the development of the art might give us a solution; but that appears to be far off, and we must now decide the issue of whether we shall have more stations in conflicting localities until new discoveries in the art solve the problem.
    We hear a great deal about the freedom of the air; but there are two parties to freedom of the air and to freedom of speech, for that matter. There is the speechmaker and the listener. Certainly in radio I believe in freedom for the listener. He has much less option upon what he can reject, for the other fellow is occupying his receiving set. The listener's only option is to abandon his right to use his receiver. Freedom can not mean a license to every person or corporation who wishes to broadcast his name or his wares, and thus monopolize the listener's set.
    We do not get much freedom of speech if 50 people speak at the same place at the same time, nor is there any freedom in a right to come into my sitting room to make a speech whether I like it or not. So far as opportunity goes to explain one's views upon questions of controversy, political, religious, or social, it would seem that 578 independent stations, many competing in each locality, might give ample opportunity for great latitude in remarks; and in any event, without trying out all this question we can surely agree that no one can raise a cry of deprivation of free speech if he is compelled to prove that there is something more than naked commercial selfishness in his purpose.
    The ether is a public medium, and its use must be for public benefit. The use of a radio channel is justified only if there is public benefit. The dominant element for consideration in the radio field is, and always will be, the great body of the listening public, millions in number, countrywide in distribution. There is no proper line of conflict between the broadcaster and the listener, nor would I attempt to array one against the other. Their interests are mutual, for without the one the other could not exist.
    There have been few developments in industrial history to equal the speed and efficiency with which genius and capital have joined to meet radio needs. The great majority of station owners to-day recognize the burden of service and gladly assume it. Whatever other motive may exist for broadcasting, the pleasing of the listeners is always the primary purpose. There is a certain analogy to our newspapers and periodicals, but the analogy is not complete. A newspaper survives upon the good will of its subscribers. It has intimate knowledge of their number, and there is a delicate and positive sensitiveness in the reflex of their good will or ill will; but the broadcasting station has little knowledge of the number of its listeners and much less ability to judge their ill will or good will. There is no daily return of rise and fall in circulation. If some one could invent a method of accurate touch, it might solve our problems, for I am convinced that some stations are broadcasting not to receiving sets but only to the ether.
    The greatest public interest must be the deciding factor. I presume that few will dissent as to the correctness of this principle, for all will agree that public good must overbalance private desire; but its acceptance leads to important and far-reaching practical effects, as to which there may not be the same unanimity, but from which, nevertheless, there is no logical escape.

WHAT  ARE  WE  TO  DO?

    We simply must say that conditions absolutely preclude increasing the total number of stations in congested areas. It is a condition, not an emotion; but this implies a determination of who shall occupy these channels, in what manner, and under what test.
    I can see no alternative to abandonment of the present system, which gives the broadcasting privilege to everyone who can raise the funds necessary to erect a station, irrespective of his motive, the service he proposes to render, or the number of others already serving his community. Moreover, we should not freeze the present users of wave lengths permanently in their favored positions irrespective of their service. That would confer a monopoly of a channel in the air and deprive us of public control over it. It would destroy the public assurance that it will be used for public benefit. There are, indeed, many difficult issues to be solved, but we have to face them just the same.
    It seems to me we have in this development of governmental relations two distinct problems. First, is a question of traffic control. This must be a Federal responsibility. From an interference point of view every word broadcasted is an interstate word. Therefore radio is a 100 per cent interstate question, and there is not an individual who has the most rudimentary knowledge of the art who does not realize that there must be a traffic policeman in the ether, or all service will be lost in complete chaos of interference. This is an administrative job, and for good administration must lie in a single responsibility.
    The second question is the determination of who shall use the traffic channels and under what conditions. This is a very large discretionary or a semijudicial function which should not devolve entire upon any single official and is, I believe, a matter in which each local community should have a large voice--should in some fashion participate in a determination of who should use the channels available for broadcasting in that locality.
    In other words, the ideal situation, as I view it, would be traffic regulation by the Federal Government to the extent of allotment of wave lengths and control of power and the policing of interference, leaving to each community a large voice in determining who are to occupy the wave lengths assigned to that community. It is true, of course, that radio is not circumscribed by State lines and still less by city boundaries; but it is possible, nevertheless, to establish zones which will at least roughly approximate the service areas of stations and to a very considerable extent to intrust to them the settlement of their local problems.
    I am seeking your view as to how far this can be made practicable or what other basis may be found for handling the problem. I have no frozen views on radio, except that the public interest must dominate. As many of you know, I am not one of those who seek to extend any sort of Government regulation into any quarter that is not vital, and in this suggestion I am even endeavoring to create enlarged local responsibility.
    Much work has been done in past sessions of Congress looking to radio legislation. I can not speak too highly of the constructive effort expended by Representative Wallace White and his committee associates in the study of radio needs and the preparation of measures to meet them; but until the present time I think we have all had some feeling of doubt as to the precise course which legislation should take, for changes have been so rapid and conditions so shifting that no one was ready to try to chart an exact course. I am glad that Congressman White and other members of the House and Senate committees are with us in this conference. I am certain that they have a hearty sympathy with, and understanding of, the actual needs of the radio public.
    To sum up, the major problems for consideration are, to my mind: (a) Is public interest paramount? (b) Shall we limit the total number of stations in each zone pending further development of the art? (c) What basis shall be established for determining who shall use the radio channels? (d) What administrative machinery shall we create to make the determination?

2. PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  CONFERENCE

    The Fourth Annual Radio Conference convened in Washington, D. C., at the building of the United States Chamber of Commerce, from November 9 to November 11, 1925. Approximately 500 persons were present, representing the many interests concerned with the use of radio. These included representatives of the listeners through broadcast listeners associations, radio publications and newspapers with radio sections, broadcasting stations of all classes, amateurs, manufacturers, engineering societies, Government departments, Members of Congress, and representatives from Canada, Cuba, and Mexico.
    The opening session of the general conference, aside from the address by Secretary Hoover and the naming of committees, was largely devoted to discussion, without action, of the following questions:
    (1) Is it essential to limit the number of broadcasting stations in order to prevent further congestion?
    (2) If stations are to be limited in number, should the public interest, as represented by service to the listeners, be the basis for the broadcasting privilege?
    (3) Should regional committees, familiar with the situation and needs of their communities, be established as advisory to the Secretary of Commerce in passing upon applications for broadcasting licenses?
RESOLUTIONS

    During the proceedings the following resolutions were presented and acted upon:
    (a) Paul B. Klugh, executive chairman, National Association of Broadcasters, presented for recording only resolutions adopted by that association, as follows:

    Resolved, That it be the sense of the National Association of Broadcasters that in any congressional legislation or pending such legislation that the test of the broadcasting privilege be based upon the needs of the public served by the proposed station. The basis should be convenience and necessity, combined with fitness and ability to serve, and due consideration should be given to existing stations and the services which they have established; and be it further
    Resolved, That full authority be vested in the Secretary of Commerce to act upon broadcasting license applications; that he should be authorized to use such means as he deems proper to ascertain the broadcasting needs of the communities in which licenses are sought, with due provision for court appeals; and be it still further
    Resolved, That we recommend that legislation be proposed to Congress enacting into law the sense of these resolutions.


    The second resolution:

    Whereas it is universally agreed that the success of radio broadcasting is founded upon the maintenance of public good will and that no broadcasting station can operate successfully without an appreciative audience; and
    Whereas the public is quick to express its approval or disapproval of broadcast program: Therefore be it
    Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that any agency of program censorship other than public opinion is not necessary and would be detrimental to the advancement of the art; and be it further
    Resolved, That inasmuch as it is necessary that the name of user of the station be connected, by suitable announcement with the program in order to derive good will, and, furthermore, inasmuch as any such announcement or program if improperly presented will create ill will, there seems no necessity for any specific regulation in regard to form of announcement in connection with such paid or any other program.


    (b) H. Umberger, Kansas State College, speaking on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, the farmers, and agricultural colleges using radio, presented the following:

    Whereas the Federal Government, through the United States Department of Agriculture, and the State governments, through the State university, agricultural colleges, and departments of agriculture, are conducting public extension services in the distribution of material of an educational, informative, and economic character; and
    Whereas the United States Congress and all State legislatures have provided for these services through appropriations approximating more than $100,000,000 annually, of which $7,000,000 is for current support and equipment for the colleges and universities, $9,000,000 for the experiment stations, and $23,000,000 for service and research by the Federal Department of Agriculture, in addition to hundreds of millions of dollars in permanent equipment; and
    Whereas the distribution of the information gathered by these agendas to the public, particularly the rural districts, is a matter of national importance; and
    Whereas radio broadcasting presents a most satisfactory and economical method of reaching the public with this important information and of making effective the public investment in these agencies; and
    Whereas these institutions have immediately at hand among their regular staffs abundant material for educational and public service programs with practically no additional cost; Therefore be it
    Resolved (1), That full recognition should be given by the Department of Commerce to the needs of these services, and (2) that adequate, definite, and specific provision should be made for these services within the broadcast band of frequencies.


    The resolution was referred to Committee No. 1: Allocation of frequency or wave-length bands.

    (c) George Schubel, director of station WHN, New York, N. Y., presented the following:

    Resolved, That regional committees, constituted of broadcasting station owners familiar with the situation and needs of their communities, be established as advisory to the Secretary of Commerce in passing upon applications for new licenses, in the adjustments of interference problems, in the correction of local abuses, in coordinating radio service, developing broadcasting ideas, better programs, studying superpower, recommendations for the issuance of new licenses, and all such other matters needing regional consideration; and be it further
    Resolved, That these regional committees be established according to the present boundaries of the radio districts in which the station operates; and be it still further
    Resolved, That the radio supervisor of each radio district be chairman of such regional committee.


    A resolution on this same subject was also adopted by Committee No. 4. (See page 23.) Both resolutions were referred to Committee No. 8: Legislation.

    (d) C. R. Fountain, station WMAZ, Macon, Ga., presented the following:

    Whereas the Secretary of Commerce has asked this conference for advice in regard to certain general methods for ameliorating the present congested conditions in the realm of radio broadcasting; and
    Whereas after due and careful consideration by representative committees this conference has expressed its beliefs relative to these general methods, such as the non-issuance of additional broadcasting licenses, the freedom from further division of time with other broadcasters, the maintenance of the present distribution of frequency channels, etc.: Therefore be it
    Resolved, That the members of this conference express to the Secretary their appreciation of this opportunity for offering their suggestions and pledge him their best efforts to help carry out the various provisions thereof; and be it further
    Resolved, That the members assure him of their hearty approval and cooperation in any individual deviations from these provisions if, in his judgment, greater service may be rendered the public thereby.


    The resolution was agreed to by the conference.

3. REPORTS  OF  COMMITTEES

    The following committee reports, adopted by the conference, embody the recommendations of the conference for the regulation of radio:

COMMITTEE  NO. 1:  GENERAL  ALLOCATION  OF  FREQUENCY  OR  WAVE-LENGTH  BANDS

    1. In view of the fact that radio development during the past year has been in general harmony with the allocation of communication channels suggested by the Third National Radio Conference, the present committee has had to recommend only minor changes in that allocation. The discussions have involved three major problems.
    2. The first of these is the matter of extending the band of frequencies assigned to broadcasting. The committee recognizes that extensions of this kind would permit the operation of additional broadcasting stations or the relief to some degree of the present condition of overcrowding. Nevertheless, no additional channels were found available for broadcasting except by sacrifice of the major wave band used by the amateurs, and careful analysis showed that even if this entire band were to be transferred to broadcasting the contribution toward the reduction of interference would be relatively slight. Furthermore, any such change in broadcasting channels would inevitably render, at least partially, obsolete the millions of broadcasting receiving sets now in use. No benefit proportionate to the certain damage could be found, and consequently the broadcasting wave band was not changed.
    3. The second important matter given consideration by the committee was a slight rearrangement of the various frequency bands for the better accommodation of the Government services. With the cooperation of the representatives of the various departments concerned, the committee arrived at the allocations stated in the table given below. It is thought that these adequately provide for all essential services.
    4. The third matter treated was the utilization of the frequency bands above 2,000 kilocycles (below 150 meters). Certain additional services are placed in some of these bands. Special thought was given to the application of the ultra-high frequency bands to beam and amateur services. It was concluded that certain of these channels should be available for experimental work other than beam transmission, and the allocations were accordingly modified in that respect. The committee appreciates that the allocations above 2,000 kilocycles (below 150 meters) must be considered to some extent temporary or experimental.
    5. The committee recommends that the services above 1,500 kilocycles (below 200 meters) use only CW, ICW, and phone transmission.
    6. The committee recommends affirmative action by the conference on the resolution quoted on page 11, submitted by Mr. H. Umberger on provision for adequate broadcast dissemination of agricultural educational information.
    7. The committee recommends, provided it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Department of Commerce, that no other wave band than 1,500 to 1,750 kilocycles (200 to 171 meters) can be used to provide satisfactory commercial radio telephony between the Hawaiian Islands, that portion of the allocation to amateurs be assigned such commercial radio telephony in the Hawaiian district only.
 
TABLE
 
KilocyclesMetersType of trans-
mission
ServiceRemarks
95-1203,156-2,499CW and ICW.Government only. 
120-1532,499-1,960CW and ICW.Marine and aircraft only. 
        1252,399CW.Government.Nonexclu-
   sive.
153-1651,960-1,817CW and ICW.Point to point, marine, and aircraft, only. 
        1551,934CW and ICW.Government.Do.
165-1901,817-1,578CW and ICW.Point to point and marine only. 
        1751,713CW and ICW.Government. Do.1
190-2301,578-1,304CW and ICW.Government only. 
230-2351,304-1,276CW and ICW.University and college experimental only. 
235-2851,276-1,052Phone.Marine only. 
        2451,224CW and ICW.Government.Do.
        2751,090CW and ICW.      do.Do.
285-5001,052-600 Marine and coastal only. 
        3001,000CW and ICW.Beacons only. 
        315952CW and ICW.Government only. 
        343874CW and ICW.Marine only. 
        375800CW and ICW.Radio compass only. 
        410731CW, ICW, spark.Marine only. 
        425706CW, ICW, spark.      do. 
        445674CW and ICW.Government.Do.
        454660CW, ICW, spark.Marine only. 
        500600CW, ICW, spark, phone.Calling and distress, and messages relating thereto, only. 
500-550600-545CW, ICW, phone.Aircraft and fixed safety of life stations.Do.
550-1,500545-200Phone.Broadcasting only. 
1,500-2,000200-150CW, ICW, phone.Amateur only. 
2,000-2,250150-133 Point to point.Do.
2,250-2,300133-130 Aircraft only. 
2,300-2,750130-109 Mobile and Government mobile only. 
2,750-2,850109-105 Relay broadcasting only. 
2,850-3,500105-85.7 Public toll service, Government mobile, and point-to-point communication by electric power supply utilities, and point-to-point and multiple-address message service by press organizations, only. 
3,500-4,00085.7-75.0 Amateur, Army mobile, naval aircraft, and naval vessels working aircraft, only. 
4,000-4,52575.0-66.3 Public toll service, mobile, Government point to point, and point to point public utilities.Do.
4,525-5,00066.3-60.0 Relay broadcasting only. 
5,000-5,50060.0-54.5 Public toll service only. 
5,500-5,70054.5-52.6 Relay broadcasting only. 
5,700-7,00052.6-42.8 Point to point only. 
7,000-8,00042.8-37.5 Amateur and Army mobile only. 
8,000-9,05037.5-33.1 Public toll service, mobile, Government point to point, and point-to-point public utilities.Do.
9,050-10,00033.1-30.0 Relay broadcasting only. 
10,000-11,00030.0-27.3 Public toll service only. 
11,000-11,40027.3-26.3 Relay broadcasting only. 
11,400-14,00026.3-21.4 Public service, mobile, and Government point to point.Do.
14,000-18,00021.4-18.7 Amateur only. 
16,000-18,10018.7-16.6 Public toll service, mobile, and Government point to point.Do.
18,100-56,00016.6-5.35 Experimental. 
56,000-64,0005.35-4.69 Amateur. 
64,000-400,0004.69-0.7496 Experimental. 
400,000-401,0000.7496-0.7477 Amateur. 
    1 Ice patrol, broadcast, etc.

NOTES

    1. Government service is the exchange of official Government business, for which Government stations shall use the bands assigned as "Government," or those marked "Nonexclusive." For regular service of other types Government stations shall use the band appropriate to the type of service to be performed. In case of a station performing both Government and other service, the frequency selected should be in the band assigned to the class of service which predominates, and occasional messages in the other class of service may be sent without shifting frequency. An exception to the foregoing allocation shall be permitted in connection with Government mobile radio equipment for training purposes. For such training and operation uses on frequencies between 550 and 1,500 kilocycles (wave lengths between 545 and 200 meters) the following rule will apply: The officer in charge of military or naval radio operations will confer with the Department of Commerce supervisor of radio in the locality where interference is probable to determine the frequencies which may be used with the least interference. Naval and military operations will then be confined so far as is possible to the time periods, frequencies, and powers which will cause minimum interference in the locality. It is understood that military and naval operation in this baud will, in general be limited to an antenna radiation of 75 meteramperes, to daylight hours, and to a limited number of hours per week and weeks per year. The amount of operation will differ somewhat in different parts of the country.
    2. For the purposes of this report the following definitions shall apply:
    Marine service is service between two stations, one of which is on board ship.
    Point to point service is service between two stations, both of which are on land or on permanently moored vessels.
    Coastal service is service between ship stations and stations on the coast.
    Aircraft service is service between stations at least one of which is an aircraft.
    Broadcasting service is transmission without designation of address for public reception.
    Amateur service is service between licensed amateur radio operators.
    Mobile service is service between stations at least one of which is movable (that is, ships, aircraft, trains, automobiles, etc.)
    Public toll service is the exchange of public correspondence for tolls as opposed to limited, private, or special services, such as amateur, broadcasting, and beacon.
    3. The higher border frequency of any band may be assigned to stations in the band, the lower border frequency being left for assignment to stations in the next lower band.
    4. The band 165 to 190 kilocycles (1,817 to 1,578 meters) may be use for radio telephony for emergency service and for testing at hours and in locations which will not interfere with licensed CW and ICW services. This shall not be understood as requiring that existing spark stations be now discontinued.

DIGEST  OF  CHANGES  FROM  1924  ALLOCATION

    The changes in the 1925 report, as compared to the 1924 report, are as follows:
    1. The arrangement of the tabulation was improved, a separate column being given for the type of transmission.
    2. The 120 to 157 kilocycles (2,499 to 1,910 meters) marine exclusive band was changed to include aircraft, and was narrowed 4 kilocycles (50 meters).
    3. The specific frequency of 125 kilocycles (2,399 meters) was assigned nonexclusively to Government work.
    4. The 157 to 165 kilocycles (1,910 to 1,817 meters) point to point and marine band was widened by 4 kilocycles (50 meters) and opened to aircraft.
    5. The Government nonexclusive wave of 160 kilocycles (1,874 meters) was changed to 155 kilocycles (1,934 meters).
    6. The 165 to 190 kilocycles (1,817 to 1,578 meters) band is no longer open to spark point to point transmission.
    7. The Government nonexclusive assignment of 185 kilocycles (1,621 meters) was canceled.
    8. The 250 kilocycles (1,199 meters) frequency assigned nonexclusively to the Government was changed to 245 kilocycles (1,224 meters).
    9. The 2,250 to 2,500 kilocycles (133 to 120 meters) aircraft exclusive band was changed to 2,250 to 2,300 kilocycles (133 to 130 meters).
    10. The 2,500 to 2,750 kilocycles (120 to 109 meters) band assigned to mobile service was enlarged to extend from 2,300 to 2,750 kilocycles (130 to 109 meters) and opened to Government mobile use.
    11. The 2,850 to 3,500 kilocycles (105 to 85.7 meters) band was assigned to public toll service, point to point service by electric power supply utilities, point to point and multiple address message services by press organizations, and Government mobile service.
    12. The 3,500 to 4,000 kilocycles (85.7 to 75.0 meters) band was opened to naval aircraft and naval vessels working aircraft.
    13. The 4,000 to 4,500 kilocycles (75.0 to 66.6 meters) was increased by 25 kilocycles (0.3 meters) and opened to point to point service by the Government and by public utilities.
    14. The relay broadcasting band immediately above 4,500 kilocycles (66.6 meters) was correspondingly narrowed by 25 kilocycles (0.3 meters), becoming 4,525 to 5,000 kilocycles (66.3 to 60.0 meters).
    15. The 5,700 to 7,000 kilocycles (52.6 to 42.8 meters) band was opened to point to point services generally.
    16. The 8,000 to 9,000 kilocycles (37.5 to 33.3 meters) band was widened by 50 kilocycles (0.2 meters) and opened to Government and public utility point to point services.
    17. The relay broadcasting band 9,000 to 10,000 kilocycles (33.3 to 30.0 meters) was correspondingly narrowed by 50 kilocycles (0.2 meters).
    18. The 11,400 to 14,000 kilocycles (26.3 to 21.4 meters) band was opened to mobile and Government point to point services.
    19. The 16,000 to 18,000 kilocycles (18.7 to 16.7 meters) band was widened by 100 kilocycles (0.1 meter) and was opened to Government point to point service.
    20. The 18,000 to 56,000 kilocycles (16.7 to 5.35 meters) band was changed from beam transmission to experimental work generally.
    21. The band above 64,000 kilocycles (below 4.69 meters) was divided, as follows: 64,000 to 400,000 (4.69 to 0.7496 meters) experimental; 400,000 to 401,000 (0.7496 to 0.7477 meter) amateur.
    22. The terms used in the allocation schedule were more closely defined.

COMMITTEE  NO. 2:  ADVERTISING  AND  PUBLICITY

    1. The committee divided advertising or publicity into three classes: (1) Direct advertising, (2) mixed advertising, (3) indirect advertising.
    2. It was the consensus of opinion that both direct and mixed advertising were objectionable to the listening public. In fact indirect advertising could be made detrimental to the interests of both the public and the broadcasting station.
    3. Advertising to achieve its best results must create the good will of those to whom it is addressed. Hence the first requisite in the successful operation of any broadcasting station in which the excellence of programs depends largely upon the support of the advertiser is the presentation of the material transmitted in such a manner that it may appeal to the majority of the listening public.
    4. The following resolution has been unanimously adopted by this committee for the guidance of all broadcasting stations:

    Whereas the excellence and public-service value of radio programs is increased by the support of those seeking appropriate publicity; and
    Whereas the use of inappropriate publicity methods meets with the hearty disfavor of the listening public; and
    Whereas this public disfavor is fatal to the purpose of those seeking publicity and good will, as well as detrimental to the interest of the broadcaster and all branches of the radio industry: Therefore be it
    Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that the best interests of the listening public, of the radio industry, and of the broadcaster are all served by that form of broadcasting which provides a meritorious program of entertainment and educational nature and which limits itself to the building of good will for the sponsor of the program, whether he be the owner of the station or a subscriber utilizing its facilities.
    Resolved, That the conference deprecates the use of radio broadcasting for direct sales effort, and any form of special pleading for the broadcaster or his products, which forms are entirely appropriate when printed or through direct advertising mediums.
    Resolved, That the conference concurs in the suggestion of the Secretary of Commerce that the problems of radio publicity should be solved by the industry itself, and not by Government compulsion or by legislation; and be it further
    Resolved, That the conference urges upon all owners of radio broadcasting stations the importance of safeguarding their programs against the intrusion of that publicity which is objectionable to the listener, and consequently detrimental to others in the industry, as well as to the reputation of the individual broadcasting station.


COMMITTEE  NO.  3:  LICENSES  AND  CLASSIFICATION

    1. The committee after four extended sessions in regard to the problems assigned to it for consideration covering classification of stations, permit in advance of construction, listening for distress signals, license fees, duration of license, classification of operators at certain stations, and the necessity of knowledge of the code on the part of such operators, has to report as follows:

CLASSIFICATION  OF  STATIONS

    2. Exhaustive discussion by your committee and others attending the meeting was given to discontinuing the distinction between classes A and B as applied to broadcasting stations. Consideration was given to the fact that the present distinction between classes A and B is purely artificial, based originally on the proposition that class B stations could not broadcast phonograph music. This result has been accomplished; that so far as the distinction was based on power that distinction has broken down, as we have many class A stations on 500 watts in addition to the B stations on 500 watts. In this respect the distinction necessarily has been disregarded; that the class A wave lengths are as good as the class B, and in some instances better. It seems objectionable to place these fine wave lengths in a class which implies inferiority. Your committee recommends that the Department of Commerce discontinue the terminology A and B as applied to classification, and allow the present classification, based on power, wave length assignments, and the requirements of the Department of Commerce to stand.

PERMIT  IN  ADVANCE  OF  CONSTRUCTION

    3. In view of the very considerable expense attached to the construction of broadcasting and commercial land stations and the difficulty of securing wave lengths for such stations, your committee considered the desirability of requiring in advance permits by the Secretary of Commerce for the construction of such new stations in order that the owner thereof might have assurance that when his station was completed he may be able to operate it, and also place in the Secretary of Commerce authority to limit the number of new stations which may be erected. After full consideration of the subject your committee recommends that an application for a permit shall be required and approved by the Secretary of Commerce in advance of the construction of commercial land and broadcasting stations.

LISTENING  FOR  DISTRESS  SIGNALS

    4. While recognizing the necessity of safeguarding to the utmost the receipt of distress calls from marine stations, your committee gave consideration to the fact that certain stations can not interfere with the receipt of such calls, and therefore recommends that those radio stations which by reason of location, power, and frequency can not, in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce, cause interference with ship SOS calls, be relieved of listening in for such distress signals and shall also be relieved of the requirements of regularly licensed station operators, and that a special class of license for such operators be substituted therefor.

LICENSE  FEES

    5. If permits to build are granted in advance, licenses issued for long terms, and the number of stations restricted the owner secures a right similar in value to a franchise for which a fee should be paid. Your committee therefore recommends that fees be charged for the licensing of all broadcasting and commercial land telegraph and telephone stations, the range of such fees to be from a minimum of $25 to a maximum of $5,000 per annum.

DURATION  OF  LICENSE

    6. The owner of a station having paid a substantial fee for his license, your committee considers that he should be protected under proper restrictions in the enjoyment of the use of such station for a reasonable period, and therefore recommends that the duration of the license of broadcasting and commercial land telegraph and telephone station shall be for five years, with the understanding that at the expiration of such license preferential consideration shall be given to the renewal thereof.

CLASSIFICATION OF LICENSES OF OPERATORS AND NECESSITY OF KNOWLEDGE OF CODE

    7. Your committee has recommended that specified radio stations be relieved of the requirements of listening in for distress signals, inasmuch as they can not interfere with the receipt of such signals, and as the operators of such stations are not required to use the code it is recommended that a special class of license for operators of such stations be granted by the Secretary of Commerce, the requirements for these licenses not to include ability to send or receive telegraphic code but to be based on general radio knowledge as specifically applied to the radio station operated and to the interference which could be created by that station.

COMMITTEE  NO. 4:  OPERATING  REGULATIONS

POWER

    1. The committee gave careful consideration to the question of power in connection with its use by broadcasting stations, and after considerable discussion it was decided that, in the absence of more information as to the effect of increased power, the power limitations recommended by the Third National Radio Conference should remain in effect. The subject was concluded by the adoption of the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that there be no change in the regulations of the department recommended by the Third Radio Conference with regard to power limitation.

TIME  DIVISION

    2. The question of time division was given careful consideration. It was pointed out that, in view of the fact that there are many stations operating on two and three way time divisions and others operating on exclusive frequencies, there should be some equitable plan established dealing with this important matter. After considerable discussion for and against time division the committee agreed that, in the interest of the public service, there are now too many broadcasting stations on the air, and that the public would be better served if there were a less number of stations. Further time division was not approved. The committee adopted the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the opinion of this conference that further division of time among stations is not in the interest of public service, and that the Department of Commerce should decline to grant any more licenses until the present number of broadcasting stations shall have been substantially reduced.

DUPLICATION  OF  FREQUENCIES

    3. Consideration was given to the questions of power, separation between stations, sensitivity of receivers, and the difference between physical distance and that which constitutes electrical distance. After considerable discussion for and against the practice of duplicating frequencies the committee submitted the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that duplication of frequencies in the present broadcast band should not be permitted in the case of stations of greater than 500 watts, and that in the case of stations of 500 watts or lower duplication should be permitted where stations are separated by a sufficient electrical distance to avoid beat notes or interference in the territory covered.

REBROADCASTING

    4. The term "rebroadcasting" was considered as referring to the interception by a broadcasting station of the program transmitted by another station and rebroadcasting the program transmitted from the originating station. It was pointed out that the program feature will ultimately become the most expensive part of a broadcasting station, and that it would be unjust for any station to intercept and rebroadcast programs from originating stations without permission.
    The subject of the inability to faithfully rebroadcast the program intercepted from the originating station was also discussed. The committee agreed that the practice of rebroadcasting programs should not be permitted except by and with the consent of the originating station. The following resolution bearing on the subject of rebroadcasting was adopted:

    Resolved, That this conference recommends that rebroadcasting of programs should be prohibited except with the permission of the originating station.

REMOVAL  FROM  CONGESTED  CENTERS

    5. Careful consideration was given to the matter of the removal of broadcasting stations from congested centers. It was pointed out that a broadcasting station utilizing considerable power could very satisfactorily operate in large cities, particularly where the broadcasting station is located in the business section and outside of the residential section. On the other hand, a broadcasting station utilizing low power might become a source of great interference to listeners if the station were located in a city and in a residential section.
    It was pointed out that the present tendency is to remove stations from congested areas and to remotely control their operation. This character of control has in the past worked out very efficiently, and it is a practice which is being extended throughout the country.
    The committee felt that it was a matter that the Department of Commerce could best control through its licensing policy, and that stations should be licensed in localities only where interference would not be caused with the service of other stations. It was specifically pointed out that the public interest was the predominating consideration in the premises and should serve as the basis for the broadcasting privilege. The following resolution was adopted dealing with this important question:

    Resolved, That it be the sense of this conference that, with a view to minimizing interference to large groups of listeners, the Department of Commerce shall, in licensing all broadcasting stations, use discrimination looking toward the locating of such stations outside of congested centers.

    (NOTE.--The committee believes that renewal licenses should be considered as new licenses, and that the above resolution applies to the renewal of existing station licenses.)

LIMIT  ON  NUMBER  OF  STATIONS

    6. The committee considered the question, Is it essential to limit the number of broadcasting stations in order to prevent further congestion?
    The committee was unanimous in their views that the number of broadcasting stations should be limited, as there was ample evidence already at hand to show that serious congestion was taking place due to the large number of stations not having sufficient frequency separation or repeating frequencies to prevent interference. The committee felt that this was so much in evidence that little time need be spent on the question. They concluded the discussion by adopting the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that the bands of frequencies now assigned to broadcasting is overcrowded, causing serious interference. Therefore, the committee recommends, in the interest of public service, that no new stations be licensed until through discontinuance the number of stations is reduced and until it shall be in the interest of public service to add new stations.

BASIS  FOR  BROADCASTING  PRIVILEGE

    7. The committee considered the question, If stations are to be limited in number, should the public interest as represented by service to the listeners be the basis for the broadcasting privilege?
    The committee were unanimous in the opinion that, in the interest of public service, it was necessary to limit the number of broadcasting stations, and accordingly adopted the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the view of this conference that public interest represented by service to the listener shall be the basis for the broadcasting privilege.

REGIONAL  COMMITTEES

    8. The committee gave very careful consideration to the question of the establishment of regional committees, and after considerable discussion it was the general consensus of opinion that it would be a very difficult task to set up the necessary machinery for inaugurating such a plan. It was further pointed out that radio broadcasting by its very nature constitutes a service that is national and international in scope, and that from a national point of view difficulty might be encountered due to issues being raised of a political character.
    The committee in concluding its deliberations adopted the following resolution:

    Resolved, That it is the sense of this committee that, in view of the national and international character of radio broadcasting, the establishment and enforcement of suitable regulations to govern the erection and operation of broadcasting stations are matters which come under the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce, and therefore this committee recommends against the creation of regional committees. This committee offers no objection to the Department of Commerce following such procedure as, in its judgment, may seem desirable to secure the opinion of the public in the area served by a broadcasting station regarding the subject which it may be required to determine.

    (This resolution was referred to Committee No. 8, on legislation, without action by the conference.)

SALE  OF  STATIONS

    9. The committee discussed the action which should be taken with regard to licensed inactive stations that are being held for the express purpose of future sale, the sale including not only the transmitting station but the wave length which has been assigned the station for use by the original owner. The committee gave careful consideration to the question of sale of wave length by station owners and adopted the following resolution:

    Resolved, That this conference views with considerable apprehension and disfavor any practice contemplating the sale of a wave length, and that we earnestly recommend that all future propositions of this kind be scrutinized most carefully by the Department of Commerce, so as to eliminate the possibility of speculating in wave lengths.

COMMITTEE  NO. 5:  MARINE  PROBLEMS

    1. The committee has given consideration both to the problems of marine communication which were assigned to it and to other problems within its jurisdiction which were presented to it by members of the conference and submits the following report and recommendations:

ARRANGEMENTS  WITH  FOREIGN  COUNTRIES

    2. The committee was informed of the arrangement recently concluded by the Department of State with Great Britain, Canada, and Newfoundland, by which vessels under the flags of these countries would not use frequencies of 1,000 kilocycles (300 meters) and 666 kilocycles (450 meters) within 250 miles of the coasts of the United States. The committee was further informed that the radio compass frequency of 375 kilocycles (800 meters) is used by vessels of Great Britain to the detriment of radio-compass service on the coasts of North America. The committee recommends:
    That the conference express its commendation of the action taken by the Department of State and further recommends that the Department of State undertake to negotiate with these and other governments looking toward the prohibition of the use of frequencies between 1,500 to 550 kilocycles (200 to 545 meters) by vessels of such countries when within 250 miles of the coasts of the United States, and that the frequency band between 400 to 353 kilocycles (750 to 850 meters) be not used by any nation within 500 miles of a radio compass station of the United States except for compass work.

ASSIGNMENT  OF  FREQUENCIES  TO  COASTAL  STATIONS

    3. The assignment of frequencies to coastal stations was discussed at length, and the committee recommends that the Department of Commerce be requested to continue to follow the recommendations of the Third National Radio Conference in this respect, these recommendations having been found in actual practice to have worked satisfactorily. It is further the sense of this committee that the Department of Commerce, in assigning frequencies for coastal stations, should make efforts to select frequencies for such stations other than the frequencies assigned to ship stations.

ADDITIONAL  CHANNELS  FOR  MARINE  SERVICE

    4. The question of congestion in the marine band was considered, as was the desirability of providing additional channels if this could be done without undue interference. The committee accordingly recommends that the Department of Commerce authorize the use of the frequency of 343 kilocycles (875 meters) by ship stations on CW, ICW, and spark; and that where local conditions will permit, permit, as adjudged by the Department of Commerce, an additional frequency of 454 kilocycles (660 meters) by CW, ICW, and spark be authorized.

RADIOTELEPHONY  FOR  HARBOR  CRAFT

    5. The desirability of operating systems of harbor craft by radiotelephone from a control station on shore was brought to the attention of the committee. It was pointed out that the present regulations which require a licensed operator to be on board such craft rendered the practical use of such system prohibitive for economic reasons. Request was made for the amelioration of the present license regulations. The committee is of the opinion that this is fundamentally a question of the nature of the license required but considers it a meritorious maritime radio problem, and accordingly gave notice to Committee No. 3 that it recommends that while the operator of the control station on shore should be licensed, as under the present regulations, the operation of radiotelephone apparatus on harbor craft which are controlled by a central radiotelephone station on shore does not necessitate the knowledge of code or a high degree of technical skill, and that a suitable license should be considered for such operators. This recommendation applies only to harbor craft using low power and frequencies between 2,750 and 2,500 kilocycles (109 to 120 meters).

HOURS  OF  WATCH

    6. The question of the necessity of publishing the hours during which vessels voluntarily equipped with radio apparatus maintain watch was discussed. The committee recommends that the hours during which watch is observed by American radio-equipped vessels be obtained and published to the radio world by the Department of Commerce.

POSITION  REPORTS

    7. The question of TR (position) reports was taken up. The attention of the committee was invited to the fact that the recommendations of Subcommittee No. 4 of the Third National Radio Conference with respect to time of transmission of TR (position) reports were not being observed by all radio interests. The committee recommends that the Department of Commerce request all interested parties to confine the transmission of TR (position) reports to hours other than from 7 to 11 p. m. local shore station time except in case of emergency or in cases where such reports can be handled wholly by CW or ICW. The committee reiterates the recommendation of the Third National Radio Conference that, in order to minimize interference, the transmission of TR (position) reports be reduced to the minimum compatible with the actual requirements of service.

DECREMENT

    8. The question of decrement of marine communication transmitters was considered, and it was the sense of the committee that gratifying progress had been made since the last conference in the trend toward the adoption of transmitting equipment of less broad emission. The committee recommends that the users of radio transmitters be encouraged to continue the installation of transmitters of less broad emission, and that the decrement be so reduced that mobile installations have a decrement not exceeding 0.12, and that coastal installations have a decrement not exceeding 0.08.

LEGISLATION

    9. The question of legislation with respect to marine radio service was discussed and it is the sense of the committee that there are no problems in the marine radio field that require legislative action at this time. The committee recommends that a resolution be adopted by the conference recommending against legislation which would affect marine radio service except insofar as such legislation may be considered necessary by the Secretary of Commerce to enable him to allocate whatever frequencies he deems advisable for the maintenance of adequate marine communication service.

SPARK  EQUIPMENT

    10. A discussion concerning the use of spark equipment for marine service was held, and the committee noted the following statement submitted by the representative of the American Steamship Owners Association:

    American shipowners are voluntarily replacing spark equipment with equipment having less broad emission. Considerable progress has been made in this replacement during the year, and indications are that all new equipment ordered by steamship companies will be of the latter type.

RADIO  COMPASS  AND  RADIO  BEACON  SERVICES

    11. The committee, recognizing the necessity for having guard bands for the radio compass and radio beacon services, reaffirms the recommendation of Subcommittee No. 4 of the Third National Radio Conference, as follows:
 
300 kc. (1,000 m.)For radiobeacon, with a guard band of 125 meters below (to 343 kc.) against broad emissions and nonsimple harmonically modulated CW and of 52 meters above 1,000 meters (to 285 kc.). An exception of the 952-meter wave length assigned to Government use was approved. Where CW and simple harmonically modulated CW are employed, the 1,000-meter wave should be guarded by a frequency separation of 15 kc.
375 kc. (800 m.) For radiocompass, with a guard band of 70 meters below (to 411 kc.) and of 70 meters above (to 345 kc.) 800 meters against broad emissions and nonsimple harmonically modulated CW. Where CW and simple harmonically modulated CW are employed, the 800-meter wave should be guarded by a frequency separation of 15 kc.

COMMITTEE  NO. 6:  AMATEUR  PROBLEMS

    1. The committee has made a careful study of matters affecting amateur operation. Committee No. 1, on allocations, has assigned for amateur uses the same frequency bands as were assigned a year ago. Amateur operation during the past year under existing regulations has been generally satisfactory, and in our consideration at this conference we have endeavored to depart as little as possible from existing regulations, in order that the administrative burden upon the supervisors of radio might be minimized. We therefore recommend to you that existing amateur regulations be continued in force with the following minor modifications:
    (a) That the conference recommend to the Department of Commerce that it no longer license the use of spark transmitters on amateur bands.
    (b) That amateur phone operation be permitted in the amateur band between 3,500 and 3,600 kilocycles (85.7 to 83.3 meters), provided such stations observe the prescribed amateur silent hours.
    (c) That, to fill a need that has been felt for years, a monthly supplement to the List of Amateur Radio Stations of the United States be published by the Department of Commerce, listing additions, changes and deletions, and available on annual subscription.
    2. In conclusion the amateur committee directs attention to the fact that for many years past the Department of Commerce has not had sufficient funds properly to administer the radio laws and regulations, and it recommends to this conference that it go on record as urging the Congress at its next session to provide sufficient appropriations to the Department of Commerce for the proper control and encouragement of radio.


COMMITTEE  NO. 7:  INTERFERENCE

    1. The committee has given consideration to the subjects referred to it by the conference, together with other suggestions by members of the committee itself, and submits the following report:
    2. The committee feels that the excellent presentation submitted by a similar committee, as appearing in the report of the Third National Radio Conference, pages 22 to 29, admirably outlined the subject, and this committee has availed itself of that report and has endeavored to use it as a basis, with the attempt to add to it such items as the experience of the last year has brought forth. This committee had referred to it by the conference the following four subjects to be considered in detail: I, Radiating receiving sets; II, Maintenance of assigned frequencies; III, Harmonics; and IV, Nonradio electrical interference.
    In addition to the above four subjects, the following subjects were considered: V, Spark transmitting sets; VI, Arc transmitting sets; VII, Use of unnecessarily high power and careless testing; VIII, High-power broadcasting stations; IX, Ship radio; and X, Methods of operation.

RADIATING  RECEIVING  SETS

    3. One form of interference to broadcast reception is that which may be caused by certain types of receiving apparatus. The elimination of this interference naturally falls into two classifications; namely: (a) Remedies to be applied to receivers of the radiating type that are already in operation; (b) The prevention of interference from receivers which may in the future be placed in operation.
    4. (a) The elimination of interference from radiating receivers already in use should preferably take the form of persuasion rather than coercion. It is felt that one of the most effective means of eliminating such interference is to give publicity to methods of operating receivers in such a manner that they will not radiate. Some publicity of this kind has been given during the past year, but it is felt that if the desired results are to be accomplished, the matter must be presented even more emphatically than has been done in the past. Testimony was received in the committee that an instruction pamphlet on Interference from Radiating Receiving Sets has been distributed in Canada, by the Canadian Government, to the owners of all registered receiving stations, with marked success and improvement in receiving conditions. In view of the fact that a large proportion of all the interference reported in the various radio districts has been due, in the past, to radiating receivers, it is believed that the dissemination of information upon this matter is of the greatest public importance, and that the attention of the press and of the periodicals of the country relating to radio should be especially called to it.
    The success of the efforts which the public press has already made in disseminating information on radio broadcasting has been so great that it is believed their efforts continued in the direction will largely aid in suppressing this interference problem.
    5. The committee also believes that the press might stimulate the organization of broadcast listeners to assist each district supervisor, thereby forming a clearing house for the local elimination of sources of interference.
    6. (b) In conformity with the keynote of this conference, that the interest and welfare of the broadcast listeners are paramount, and in view of the fact that radiating receivers are potential sources of interference, this committee urgently recommends that at some definite and reasonable future date, the manufacture and sale of all radiating receivers for broadcast reception be discontinued. Because of the benefits which will accrue to the radio public from the suppression of radiating receivers, it is urgently recommended that if the manufacture and sale of such receivers be not discontinued within a reasonable period, legislation to that end shall be sought.
    A radiating receiver is defined as a receiving device which generates oscillations of frequency within broadcasting limits in the receiving antenna so as to produce radiation therefrom of intensity sufficient to cause noticeable interference in other receiving sets of average sensitivity.
    (The adoption of this paragraph by the conference was with the understanding that it should not apply to every possible radiation but that its interpretation should be a matter of degree.)

MAINTENANCE  OF  ASSIGNED  FREQUENCIES

    7. Frequency allocations have been made on the basis of narrow margins between adjacent stations, and this calls for maintenance of frequency within the closest possible limits. A better check on the use of unauthorized frequencies is being provided. Regular measurements and reports should be made of the frequencies actually used by radio transmitting stations throughout the United States. Work of this character is a proper duty of the Department of Commerce radio service. If, however, the Department of Commerce is unable to undertake more extended work of this kind at the present time, it is urged that arrangements be made by operating radio stations, by which a systematic check may be obtained on the frequencies used by their radio transmitting stations. Such self-regulation has been carried on by several organizations, and it is believed that its extension, especially by organizations of broadcasting stations, is desirable.
    8. Apparatus is now available for maintaining and checking the frequency of transmitting stations. It is recommended that the Department of Commerce require all stations to use some means of frequently checking their transmitted frequencies with a properly calibrated instrument. If this is done, it is believed that a separation of 10 kilocycles between broadcasting stations will not result in interference.

HARMONICS

    9. Interference from harmonics results from the emission of radio power on one or more frequencies higher than the fundamental frequency. Any transmitting set is subject to this faulty tendency. By the use of simple and relatively inexpensive modern methods this objectionable transmission can be overcome. In spite of the fact that recommendation to this effect was made in last year's report (p. 26), very little attention has been paid to it in practice.
    10. It is recommended that all offending transmitting stations emitting harmonics shall be compelled to install suitable means to suppress harmonic radiation.

NONRADIO  ELECTRICAL  INTERFERENCE

    11. The solution of this portion of the radio interference problem insofar as the solution seems to be possible at this time apparently involves such subjects as the education of a portion of the public in all parts of the United States, and the cooperation with companies and individuals who render electric supply and communication services. In other words, it is a matter for self-service and helpful cooperation on the part of the public.
    12. Such interference may occur at any point where electrical circuits are used. The most powerful high-voltage line and the least powerful household electrical appliance may produce such interference. Even a disconnected wire such as a guy wire, if irregularly grounded, as, for example, through the moving branches of a tree, may under the atmospheric conditions which exist in some parts of the country, cause sufficient interference to prevent the reception of weak radio broadcasts in that vicinity.
    13. As these interferences do occur in every community, their sources can not possibly be found by the necessarily limited number of Government employees. As only a portion of the sources are caused by the lines that belong to companies which supply any kind of electric service and as the broadcast listeners in a limited area are frequently the only persons who are conscious of the existence of an interference, the most effective step to eliminate such interferences is to educate broadcast listeners in methods of locating the source of interference and its prevention or to take the necessary cooperative steps to have the interference eliminated.
    14. This education of, and action by, the listening public can be brought about, as has been found experimentally, through the formation of local broadcast listeners' clubs, which have been guided by information from those who have made a special study of the subject. The information can be given to the clubs through the columns of the radio magazines, radio sections of newspapers, radio broadcast stations, and the publications of the Bureau of Standards, the publications and meetings of the National Electric Light Association, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the Institute Radio Engineers, the American Radio Relay League, and by our educational institutions. This information, together with maintained interest and a persistent friendly spirit of cooperation with public-service companies and all other interested parties, can give excellent results.
    15. The establishment of automobile clubs is said to have been a fundamental cause of our good roads. The establishment and maintenance of systematically and conservatively conducted radio clubs in all communities should serve as a fundamental factor for solving this and other radio problems that have to do with the giving of the best possible radio service to the public. For example, the results obtained through the clubs in which observations have already been made show that, through the club papers, talks and interference committees, such interferences were stopped. Also through demonstrations at club meetings, uninformed users of interfering radio receivers were shown how they produced interference which then stopped. Also the clubs indicated that they could be careful, deliberating and reliable bodies, suitable for making recommendations to the Secretary of Commerce via the district radio supervisors on matters pertaining to the good of the service.
    16. In addition, it is recommended that each district be supplied with sufficient personnel and an automobile equipped with apparatus suitable for finding interferences and making measurements necessary to good radio broadcast service.
    17. From the standpoint of overriding interferences, the increase of power at broadcasting stations should help to solve the radio interference problem.
    18. This committee desires to commend the work that has been done by the National Electric Light Association in disseminating information to the electric light companies regarding the finding and eliminating of accidental interferences that come from their lines. Also this committee desires to commend the other technical societies and the publications which have given out information on this subject. All of that information has served to reduce the number of interferences.

SPARK  TRANSMITTING  SETS

    19. The interference resulting from the use of damped wave transmitters is gradually being reduced by the improvement of equipment but is still rather serious in isolated cases. If the number of damped wave transmitting sets can be gradually reduced and the remaining sets of this class gradually improved in the quality of their transmission, the situation will be still further improved with little hardship to the owners of such stations. The following recommendations are submitted:
    (a) That land stations in point-to-point service, other than those using CW, shall be limited to the use of waves of low equivalent decrement such as are produced by ICW installations.
    (b) That mobile installations shall have decrements not exceeding 0.12 and that coastal installations shall have decrements not exceeding 0.08.

ARC  TRANSMITTING  SETS

    20. Arc transmitters shall be so equipped and so operated as to eliminate parasitic and spacing wave radiation. (See page 23 of report of third conference.)

USE  OF  UNNECESSARILY  HIGH  POWER  AND  CARELESS  TESTING

    21. Unquestionably much interference now experienced is the result of using higher transmitting power than necessary. There is a noticeable tendency to provide sufficient power to maintain communication under unfavorable conditions and then to continue with that power through all the more favorable seasons. Control of power input necessarily rests usually with the operating personnel, and few operators will voluntarily reduce power for the possible accommodation of remote stations not in a position to make their troubles known directly. In fact, the use of sufficient power to get every signal through clearly without necessity for repetition is probably more conducive to reduction of interference than the use of less power which results in repetitions, and thereby consumes more time than necessary in clearing traffic. The happy medium between maximum power and insufficient power can only be achieved by constant supervision of operations by the responsible management assisted so far as possible by the Government inspectors. It is a very difficult situation to control by Government inspectors alone, and the burden must be assumed primarily by the managements of stations. Consideration should also be given to the operating speed of operators in order to reduce interference resulting from the unnecessary repetition of messages in transmission.
    22. Interference from careless testing is similar to that from the use of excessive power in that it is usually under the direct control of an operator without due appreciation or respect for the rights of others. Much testing can be conducted without radiating energy; and if testing with radiation could be confined to the actually necessary cases the interference from the source would probably be negligible, particularly if testing were conducted on the authorized frequency of the station. Care on the part of responsible managements that their operators are properly instructed in testing methods, combined with vigilance and report to supervisors on the part of all cognizant of such abuses, are about the only remedies which can be suggested.

HIGH-POWER  BROADCASTING  STATIONS

    23. The fear which was felt a year ago that high power would adversely affect the reception of a large number of listeners has been shown to be without foundation. The increase of power by transmitting stations has improved general conditions of reception. It is recommended that the present attitude of the Department of Commerce of authorizing experimental development of high-power broadcasting stations be continued. It is also recommended that all future stations which radiate frequencies within the broadcasting band be located away from congested centers of population, the distance depending on the field strength produced in the congested area.

SHIP  RADIO

    24. It is recommended that the Department of Commerce endeavor to secure the enactment of legislation which will permit the establishment of uniform regulations regarding the use of radio transmitters by ships in ports and territorial waters, and the conclusion of international agreements covering the use of radio by ships in the vicinity of the United States.
    25. The recommendation of the Third National Radio Conference that 500 kilocycles (600 meters) be reserved for calling and distress only has materially reduced interference. This could be carried still further through adoption of uniform methods of operation so that this frequency is used as little as possible in establishing communication without reducing the number of marine stations which habitually listen on this frequency.

MISCELLANEOUS

    26. In view of the great congestion which exists at the present time within the limits of broadcasting frequencies, it is urgently recommended that the Secretary of Commerce withhold further licenses within these limits, pending congressional legislation to this end.
    27. The committee renews the appeal contained in last year's report (page 29) calling attention to the urgent necessity for providing increased personnel and equipment for the Department of Commerce, in carrying out the numerous and arduous duties pertaining to the regulation of radio in the United States.

COMMITTEE  NO. 8:  LEGISLATION

    1. It has been the pride of the radio industry that it has been to a large extent self-regulating, most of the regulatory features necessary for its efficient functioning being discussed and agreed upon at these annual conferences rather than imposed by governmental authority. It is highly desirable that this condition shall continue to the greatest measure possible. Nevertheless, it must be recognized that in the widespread network of stations that now exist throughout the country, each a potential destroyer of the messages of the other, regulation to keep open the traffic lanes is absolutely essential and that regulation can be imposed efficiently only by the central authority of the Federal Government, which must have the right through issue of licenses, control of power, assignment of wave lengths, and other appropriate measures, to handle as a whole the interstate and international situation. This power should be vested in the Secretary of Commerce, as it is to a limited degree at present. But governmental authority should not be extended to mere matters of station management, not affecting service or creating interference, nor should it under any circumstances enter the forbidden field of censorship.
    2. That authority should exist to limit the number of stations in any community has already been determined by this conference, which has likewise recommended that benefit to the listener must be the basis for the broadcasting privilege. With these determinations your committee is of course in hearty accord. We would, however, point out that recognition of the principle of public benefit does not bring the broadcasting stations into the category of recognized public utilities. The owners of broadcasting stations have not dedicated them to public use in a legal sense, and such matters as regulation of rates and other similar features of supervision exercised by governmental bodies over public utilities generally, should still, in the judgment of your committee, remain under the exclusive control of the station owner. In many respects these provisions are inapplicable to broadcasting stations by their very nature; and in any event, we do not believe the time has come for their imposition.
    3. As to the specific matters referred to this committee, we respectfully submit the following report:
    4. It is the opinion of this committee that--
    (a) Existing Federal statutes are inadequate to permit proper administration of radio communication activities.
    (b) The Congress of the United States is empowered by the Constitution to enact legislation necessary to provide such adequate administration.
    (c) Present conditions and the public interest require that such legislation be enacted.
    5. Your committee therefore recommends that Congress do enact such legislation, incorporating therein the following principles:
    (a) That the administration of radio legislation shall be vested in the Secretary of Commerce, who shall make and enforce rules and regulations necessary to the proper administration of the provisions of such legislation.
    (b) Such administration shall be exercised by the Secretary through the officers or employees of the Department of Commerce.
    (c) That the doctrine of free speech be held inviolate.
    (d) That those engaged in radio broadcasting shall not be required to devote their property to public use and their properties are therefore not public utilities in fact or in law; provided, however, that a license or a permit to engage in radio communication shall be issued only to those who in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce will render a benefit to the public; or are necessary in the public interest; or are contributing to the development of the art.
    (e) That in time of war or other national emergency the President shall have the power to discontinue or commandeer existing stations, with just compensation.
    (f) That no monopoly in radio communication shall be permitted.
    (g) That the legislation shall contain provisions for due appeal from final decisions of the Secretary of Commerce to the appropriate court.
    (h) Except in the case of governmental stations, the Secretary shall be empowered to classify all stations and to fix and assign call letters, wave length, power, location, time of operation, character of emission, and duration of license.
    6. It is recommended that call letters shall be recognized as representing a property right and be treated accordingly during the life of the license. The Secretary shall not change call letters, wave length, power, time of operation, nor character of emission except on the application by or consent of the licensee; provided, however, that if in the opinion of the Secretary such changes are required as a public necessity any change or changes may be made.
    7. Provided further, that the term of a license to operate a broadcasting transmitting station, the character of which is to be defined in the act, shall be not to exceed five years, with the privilege of renewal for like periods, and provided further, that the Secretary may suspend or revoke any license for failure to maintain regular operation of a transmitting station without just cause.
    (i) No license shall be issued to operate a transmitting station not already operating in radio communication, except mobile or amateur stations, unless prior to the application for such license there shall have been issued by the Secretary of Commerce an erection permit; provided further, that an erection permit to engage in radio communication shall be issued only to those who, in the opinion of the Secretary of Commerce, will render a benefit to the public; or are necessary to the public interest; or are contributing to the development of the art.
    (j) Each license to operate a transmitting station in radio communication shall prescribe the responsibility of such station with respect to distress signals, but in any event all licenses shall provide that upon due and proper order from governmental authority such stations shall cease operation until released by the same authority.
    (k) That the act should define the following terms, to wit: Commercial stations, broadcasting stations amateur stations, and experimental stations.
    (l) That the Secretary shall have the power to revoke or suspend any license whenever he shall determine that the licensee has violated any of the terms of his license, regulation of the Secretary, Federal radio law, or international treaty.
    (m) That in order to insure financial stability to radio enterprises, capital now invested must receive reasonable protection; therefore all stations which contribute to the public interest and benefit shall be given a reasonable length of time to conform to the provisions of the proposed act and the rules and regulations prescribed thereunder.
    (n) That rebroadcasting of programs shall be prohibited except with the permission of the originating station.
    (o) The Secretary of Commerce shall be empowered to make and enforce such rules and regulations as may be necessary to prevent interference to radio reception emanating from radio sources.
    (p) Authority should provided to prescribe and enforce uniform regulations regarding the use of radio transmitters on ships in territorial waters.

COMMITTEE  NO. 9:  COPYRIGHT  RELATIONS  TO  BROADCASTING

    In organizing this committee Secretary Hoover stated that the matter is one with which the Department of Commerce is not directly concerned. It is a question of copyright rather than radio. While it did not fall within the strict scope of the conference, in response to numerous requests Committee No. 9, on copyright relations to broadcasting, was appointed. Since the question primarily concerned broadcasters, the committee membership included a group of persons named by the president of the National Association of Broadcasters.
    1. Representatives of the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers discussed with the committee some of the copyright questions involved in broadcasting.
    2. It was agreed by all interests that the owners of copyrights were entitled to reasonable compensation for the use of their copyrights, and the representatives of the broadcasting interests indicated a complete willingness to pay a reasonable charge for copyrighted numbers used by them.
    3. It appeared, however, that the parties were not able to agree upon the terms and conditions of use of copyrights. The committee reached the conclusion that no good purpose would be served by undertaking to make a recommendation upon these disputed matters. The committee, however, considered the principles which should control in the solution of this problem, and its conclusions are embodied in the resolution presented to the conference, a copy of which is shown below.
    4. Attention is directed to the fact that this resolution is applicable in terms only to musical compositions. The committee did not undertake either in its deliberations or its recommendations to deal with copyrights of literary or dramatic production nor of press matter.

RESOLUTION  ADOPTED  BY  COMMITTEE  NO. 9

    (No action was taken by the conference on this report. It was allowed to stand as the recommendation of the committee.)

    Whereas there can be no continuation of broadcasting unless musical compositions are made available to broadcasters upon a fair, equitable, and permanent basis; and
    Whereas an insistent demand from the public requires that music be made the principal part of broadcast entertainment; and
    Whereas practically all of this music is held by copyright proprietors and is not available to broadcasters except on prohibitive and unstable terms; and
    Whereas the broadcasters recognize the right of the copyright proprietors to compensation for the use of their compositions and are willing to pay a fair and equitable maximum fee for each broadcast rendition of each copyright musical number; and
    Whereas broadcasters believe that copyright owners should have the sole, complete, and entire right to withhold their property from all broadcasting if they so desire; but that if a copyrighted number is released by the owner thereof to one or more broadcasters, then such number shall become available to all broadcasters; and
    Whereas the present conditions threaten the entire broadcasting structure and the continuation and permanence of broadcasting depends upon the solution of this problem; and
    Whereas all attempted solutions through negotiation between the parties have proved unavailing: Now, therefore, be it
    Resolved, That it is the sense of this conference that the only possible solution lies in the enactment of suitable legislation based upon the above principles, and it is the recommendation of this conference to the Secretary of Commerce that such legislation be suggested to Congress.