This review of the July 2, 1921 broadcast of the Dempsey-Carpentier heavyweight bout by WJY in Hoboken, New Jersey gets a little carried away at times, but this was in fact a very historic event in the history of U.S. radio. As noted in the article, outside of the participants, the broadcast actually wasn't publicized very much to the general public. But it still was the largest audience for a radio broadcast to date, and foreshadowed the explosive growth of broadcasting which would occur the next year, when people started buying radios for home use, rather than having to gather at halls, as most of them did for this event.
 
The Wireless Age, August, 1921, page 11-21:
arena photograph

Voice-Broadcasting  the  Stirring  Progress  of  the  "Battle  of  the  Century"

How  The  Largest  Audience  in  History  Heard  the  Description  of  the  Dempsey-Carpentier  Contest  Through  Use  of  the  Radiophone 

    TO listeners breathless with expectation came the words: "Seven . . . eight . . . nine . . . ten! Carpentier is out!! Jack Dempsey is still the world's champion!"
    Thus was the climax reached at 3.34.26 o'clock on the afternoon of July 2nd. A multitude--not less than 300,000 persons--tense and eager, were hearing at that instant the voice that sounded loud and clear throughout the Middle Atlantic states. The magic of the radio telephone had accomplished new wonders. A daring idea had become a fact.
    A triumph . . . It was more than that. It was history in the making. Radio has had its triumphs. Great distances have been spanned in the past, nations and continents have been connected; even has the voice been carried across the sea. But everything in the past record of wonders but adds to the lustre of this latest amazing demonstration of broadcasting a voice to the largest audience in history.
    The great thrill came after months of preparation and universal excitement. Trainloads of newsprint paper and tons of ink had prepared millions of persons for "The Battle of the Century"; miles of type had been set to tell of the wonders of the great arena, specially erected in Jersey City at a fabulous cost. Money was spent like water to bring to the sides of that little 18-foot squared enclosure several hundred expert observers, famed for their descriptive powers, so that the public could have vivid word-portrayals of the athletic contest between the ablest fistic experts of the old and the new worlds. Peoples all over the civilized globe sat up and marveled at the preparations.
    Quietly, inconspicuously, almost unnoticed in the frenzy of preparation, radio was made ready for the dramatic moment. And when it arrived--a new communication record was set up for history!
    A record . . . and the ushering in of a new era. For while the eyes of the world were awaiting the issuance of the time-honored descriptive printed word to tell the story--radio told it by voice! Instantly, through the ears of an expectant public, a world event had been "pictured" in all its thrilling details.
    And to what an audience! The great arena where 90,000 persons gathered to witness the contest, held but a fraction of the audience that radio assembled. That famed Jersey City site, Thirty Acres, was but a dot in the vast area of 125,000 square miles within which auditors gathered to follow the tide of battle by radio's spoken word.
    The appeal to the imagination is boundless. Forecasts for the future now can be made a subject for pleasant, stimulating and practically endless speculation. But the present has its story to tell. It is the recital of the facts of an accomplished task. So, taking it chronologically, the main points are these:
    The idea of describing the world's championship boxing contest by the spoken word was first presented to Tex Rickard, the famous promoter of sporting events, some three months before the scheduled date of the event. Julius Hopp, manager of the Madison Square Garden concerts, impressed with the skill of New York amateur radio men as disclosed at the Second District Convention, recognized the possibilities of radio voice reporting of the descriptive features of the struggle for supremacy between Jack Dempsey and Georges Carpentier. The idea appealed to Mr. Rickard, and stirred the imagination of his business associate, Frank E. Coultry. Matters were left in Mr. Hopp's hands, and he set about the task of securing the required apparatus and personnel.
SOME  IMPRESSIONS
By  J.  ANDREW  WHITE
    Now that it's all over, I don't mind saying that describing the big scrap so it would convey "pictures" to you listeners, was the toughest reporting job I ever tackled. Jammed up against the ring, in a little coop without elbow room, and with the hot sun beating down, and bedlam breaking loose on every side . . . it's a wonder it sounded even intelligible. The men punched quicker than could be noted by speech. Their speed baffled the tongue; even the eye was strained. I could give only the "high light" punches--the ones that did some damage. Welker was monitor of the Thermos-bottled ice water. He recalled its purpose, eventually. I'd been talking, then, steadily for two hours and a half.
    And those telegraph keys ! Three hundred of them clacking and chattering. Back of them the leather-lunged "advisers" telling the favored contestant, and the world, how Atta Boy should finish the other.
    That fourth round had all the trimmings and one thing more. 'Member that, "stiff left and a right to the jaw," just before Carpentier went down for the count of nine? Well, Carp's 172 pounds of muscle were within some eight inches of my unprotected head when he began to fall. Only a single rope--and the wild thought that I must continue to talk without interruption--intervened to stay the execution of the natural safety-first inclination. Fortunately, he dropped forward, when he crashed.
    Just before the mighty warriors came out for the great battle, I received a message from Hoboken, and wrote it out at the ringside. It was from the operator of Lafayette Station at Bordeaux, France, wishing Carpentier success. When the likable French champion came into the ring he bowed his acknowledgement and a few smiles to us in the radio coop. It wasn't the first time we'd met by the way; do you know that Carp's a regular, full blown, member of the N. A. W. A.? Jack Dempsey's face brightened up, too, when a greeting came to him from our beaver-board enclosure. Jack's a real amateur ham; radio is his regular evening diversion in his training periods.
    Can't help liking Jack. He's not very pretty, but he's a clean sportsman. You should have seen the appeal to the Referee in the American's eyes when the Frenchman was down for the first count. Jack didn't want to hit him again. It wasn't necessary; and he knew it. This brute strength business that everyone talks about is all poppycock. And nothing could be more naive and natural than the way he sprang forward at the final ten and lifted up his gallant opponent in his arms.
    The next thing, now that it's over, is to arrange a get-together of the amateurs who heard the crowd cheering and those who liked the voice of Mr. W. J. Wye. Maybe they can tell us why the market has been bullish on honeycomb coils.
    And who was it that first discovered the automobile type of Dictograph, plus an obsolete phonograph horn and a 6-volt battery, made some radio speech amplifier?
    It's worth something, too, to know how differently a Magnavox sounds when it's operated by Davis, who arrived from the Pacific Coast in the midst of the excitement and became the life of the party in several locations at once.
    Speaking of and to the Live Ones, the dozen fellows that sent in copies of the description should know that I'm truly grateful. It's only through these that I know what I said. The roar of the crowd drowned out my own voice, for me, and afterward I was wondering just how much sense the description conveyed.
    One thing that is growing clearer every day, however, is the need for newspapers giving a fair share of the credit where it properly belongs. If an amateur can't earn individual credit for his work in his own home town, something is wrong. Those who were cheated should write now to managing editors of their respective newspapers, if only to set things straight for the next event
    There was real news value in some of the receiving stunts. A roped-off miniature ring was erected by the students in the main classroom of the Radio Institute of America. Matt Bergin refereed the audibility contest.
    But read the article itself; these side remarks only touch here and there. The article covers things in quite some detail; for (taking you into my confidence) 'twas written especially for the Radioist who phoned in to ask us to talk louder because he couldn't hear Hoboken on his bulb and two stages. We strive to please . . . particularly the deaf and dumb.

    Manufacturers, individual amateurs, clubs and radio organizations of all characters were made acquainted with the plan. General offers of co-operation were returned in some cases; in others, the scheme was thought to be impracticable. The president of one organization that has long occupied a prominent place in amateur affairs, restricted the possibilities to a head phone receiving proposition, placed the ultimate range of a radio telephone at 100 miles, and gave his opinion that means for making the voice satisfactorily audible to large audiences in halls had not been developed. At the same time, this amateur organization turned down the project.
    Such an attitude was easily understandable, for voice broadcasting on the scale contemplated had no precedent. The National Amateur Wireless Association's officers felt differently, however, and within a few hours after being notified of what was wanted they accepted, without qualification, the task of transmitting and receiving the voice. Technical difficulties were recognized and respected; but in radio, obstacles exist only to be removed. Confidence in the amateurs, and the knowledge that highly expert engineers could be secured to rise to any demand, made the fact that the proposition called for new departures in communication engineering only more interesting. It was looked upon as a co-operative effort toward an achievement worth while. And that is what it turned out to be.
    Every individual who participated earned as much credit as the next one. It took courage to undertake even the smallest part of the program, and each amateur who receives one of the certificates of participation can look upon it as something better than a souvenir; for it is a testimonial to his confidence in his own ability to take an essential part in an historical event.
    Upon the officials of the National Amateur Wireless Association fell the technical burden and the administrative task of organizing the amateurs, mobilizing apparatus and overcoming each technical obstacle as it presented itself. But at the Association's Headquarters the point was never lost sight of, that the individual amateur was the connecting link. It was this confidence in the harmonious and effective working which could be thus accomplished that resulted in the firm arrangement made with Tex Rickard and his associates, Mr. Coultry and Mr. Hopp, for the N. A. W. A. to take over exclusively the radio arrangements. That the amateurs rose to the occasion is now history; how well they accomplished their task they, themselves, tell later on in this article.
    The first problem for the N. A. W. A. officers was the selection of a transmitter; the second, was the site. Then came the preliminary organization of details. Several months were thus occupied, but on June 10th, when the word went forth, calling upon the amateurs for their co-operation, the Radio Corporation of America had agreed to furnish the transmitter, the Lackawanna Railroad had loaned the use of its towers at Hoboken, and telephone lines had been arranged for, connecting direct with the ringside. Representatives of the American Committee for Devastated France and the Navy Club, in whose hands the securing of theatres and halls was concentrated, had then started out on trips to various cities and towns within a radius of 200 miles of Jersey City. A vast amount of preparation had therefore been completed before the aid of the amateurs was summoned, and the value of this preparation is readily seen in the extent of the territory covered. As the project grew the arrangements for securing theatres and halls were entrusted to Mr. Hopp by the American Committee for Devastated France and the Navy Club, and this feature of the work was from then on directed from the office of the former organization.
    The selection of operating personnel for theatre assignments was largely governed by the information contained on the application blanks. The information there given proved to be an excellent guide to the qualifications of the amateurs who offered their services. As the applications began to come in, however, it was evident that the wholehearted response had special significance. The amateur spirit of tackling the unknown was eloquently disclosed, for in practically all cases reception on 1600 meters was entirely new. They hadn't the equipment in many instances, and at least half of the volunteers had done no previous listening on that wavelength. The majority of the courageous ones who tackled the job had to resort to makeshift apparatus and face the additional handicap of responsibility to large gatherings of people. There were numerous cases of "cold feet," but these were offset by the many who saw the benefit to amateur progress in a departure from the more or less irresponsible playing around on 200 meter wavelengths, and eagerly grasped the opportunity to undertake a task that called for perfect reception and amplification. Amateur radio owes more than a casual debt of gratitude to the few hundred progressives who have by their achievement awakened the field at large to the knowledge that there is a place for brilliant work outside 200 meter undertakings; hundreds of letters received at N. A. W. A. headquarters stress the point that the fight description broadcasting has pointed the way to the utility of amateur radio in a larger, more interesting field.
ringside photograph

    Solely from the amateur's viewpoint, the voice broadcasting of July 2nd is looked upon as marking up a new high level. Letter after letter contains the gratitude of writers that amateurs have at last had the opportunity to participate in an undertaking that really meant something, and which gave the amateur a man's size job.
    There is now an insistent demand that the idea be kept alive, that large scale broadcasting to audiences, through the amateurs, be expanded to include voice descriptions of baseball games, all sorts of sporting events, speeches by noted men, lectures and every imaginable form of musical entertainment. Enthusiasm has reached high pitch, as the doubters have been silenced.
    Now, as to how the record-breaking broadcasting event was accomplished:
    About the first thing determined was the wavelength. It was obvious that a full success could not be accomplished unless the possibility of interference was eliminated; that made 1600 meters look good, and when Commander D. C. Patterson, the District Communication Officer, gave assent to the use of this Navy wavelength and assurances that the Navy would keep out on the afternoon of July 2nd, that problem was settled. Later on, Chief Radio Inspector Arthur Batcheller accomplished wonders in getting the special license through and by notifying everybody who was likely to be using a wavelength near 1600 meters, that a lot of silence during the dramatic hour would be appreciated. These steps followed close upon the securing of the transmitting set. That detail was largely a matter of acquaintance with the day-to-day status of the radio art. The officials of the N. A. W. A. knew, for that is part of their qualifications, where the most powerful available radiophone transmitter lay. It was at the General Electric works at Schenectady, and when the whole plan had been placed before the Radio Corporation of America, use of the equipment was definitely arranged for.
    At first it was intended to install the transmitter at the ringside in Jersey City. But erection of an adequate antenna equipment looked to be a proposition too expensive for an undertaking in which the proceeds were for charity, so that was abandoned. The Lackawanna Railroad had just what was wanted and the use of its towers at Hoboken was quickly secured. Then, through the enthusiasm of L. B. Foley, the railroad's superintendent of telegraphs, several trunks on the land wire telephone switchboard were set aside exclusively for the connection to the ringside.
    When the first preliminary test of transmission to the amateurs occurred, as scheduled, on the evening of June 24th, practically every detail of the program had been completed. Every evening during the entire week before the international boxing contest took place, voice broadcasting was continued for several hours. Each evening more power was used, and the reports from the amateurs were carefully checked to determine the adequacy of the range. On July 1st, the night before the contest, the full power was put on for the first time. This transmission was announced to be typical of what could be expected on the following eventful afternoon. A deluge of reports followed; eight telephone trunk lines were in constant operation in the endeavor to receive the endeavor to receive the out of town telephone calls as fast as they were coming. Three persons were constantly employed in answering the telephone calls, but it was found absolutely impossible to keep up with the incoming stream of reports from six or seven States on the Atlantic seaboard. By nine o'clock that night there was not the slightest question of the following day's success; amateurs throughout the entire territory which it had been planned to cover had reported the set to be working at 100 per cent. efficiency as to strength of signals and clearness of speech.
    No untoward incidents occurred on the long-awaited day which followed. In accordance with a last minute change in plan the voice was not transmitted direct from the ringside, as originally intended. J. Andrew White, acting president of the N. A. W. A., described the preliminaries and the main bout, talking over the direct wire from the ringside, and this description was repeated by J. O. Smith (2ZL) word for word into the radiophone transmitter at Hoboken.
    How accurate and vivid was the description; needs no comment--the hundreds of thousands who heard it can tell that side of the story best. It is of additional interest, though, that due to the almost instantaneous re-transmission, the result was known by radio ahead of the fastest telegraph reports and the actual blows that caused the knockout of Carpentier were known by the radiophone listeners many minutes before the newspapers or other public sources of information had the definite knowledge. The radio telegraph, too, instantly flashed the result to Europe from the main telegraph office of the Radio Corporation of America at 64 Broad Street, New York, where a special operator hung expectantly over the key awaiting the voice in the radio receiver to report the outcome.
    There are, literally, a thousand and one angles from which to view the achievement, but space limitations prevent their recording in this article. So, turning to the next feature of primary interest, the powerful radiophone that did the job at Hoboken, it may be of interest that this transmitter, built by the General Electric Company and installed by the Radio Corporation of America, employed six 250-watt Radiotrons, three used as oscillators and three as modulators, when on telephone or buzzer modulated output. For straight continuous wave telegraphy all six Radiotrons were used as oscillators.
    The power necessary for the operation of the tubes was obtained from a motor generator, the voltage of which was 2,000 D. C. A separate winding on the direct-current motor provided alternating current for filament heating. A transformer with neutral top was employed to obtain the proper voltage.
    The antenna consisted of four wires and was of the usual T type, the flat top 450 feet long. At an average height of 250 feet it was swung between the 400-foot steel tower and the clock tower of the Lackawanna Terminal. The ground system used included copper roofs of the train sheds and several low buildings, a network of tracks and a system of pipes running into the salt water of the Hudson River.
    The fundamental period of the whole antenna and ground system was 750 meters and the wavelength on which the reports were transmitted was 1600 meters.
    Halls and theatres were operated under contract between the American Committee for Devastated France and the Navy Club, and the arrangements were handled by amateurs indicated at the following theatres and halls:

Bridgeport, Conn. Colonial Hall; audience of 500 enjoyed the returns.
      F. M. Ham (Bridgeport Radio Club)
Wilmington, Delaware. The Playhouse entertained an audience of 574.
      W. S. Wilson.
Albany, N. Y. Odd Fellows Hall held an audience of 100.
      F. H. Myers.
Mt. Vernon, N. Y. Merchants and Manufacturers Association had an audience of 100.
      H. J. Hasbrouck.
Newark, N. J. Kruger's Auditorium; audience 303.
      A. Wester (Radio Club of Irvington, N. J.)
Paterson. N. J. Lyceum Theatre; audience 289.
      E. M. Graf (Paterson Radio Club).
Bridgeton, N. J. Criterion Theatre; audience 358.
      Bridgeton Radio Club.
Bethlehem, Pa. Coliseum; audience of 200.
      Lehigh Valley Radio Club.
Asbury Park. N. J. Park Theatre, had audience of 264.
      H. J. McCullom.
Yonkers, N. Y. Elks Club; audience of 100.
      Edwin H. Armstrong.
Perth Amboy, N. J. Majestic Theatre; audience 250.
      John J. Hallahan.
Elmira, N. Y. Mozart Theatre; audience of 200.
      Harold Perkins.
Freeport, L. I. Auditorium; audience of 199.
      John G. Newberry.
Williamsport, Pa. Majestic Theatre; audience of 200.
      F. J. Demarest.
Stamford, Conn. Elks Hall; audience of 100.
      J. Edw. Brown.
Springfield, Mass. Plaza Theatre; audience of 410.
      Springfield Radio Club.
Trenton, N. J. The Arena; audience of 408.
      Amandus Wentzel.
Cranford, N. J. Greenford Theatre; audience of 150.
      T. J. Larsen.
New Haven. Conn. The Arena; audience 100.
      J. T. Butler.
Utica, N. Y. Gaiety Theatre; audience 790.
      George M. Benas.
                        New York City:
Van Kelton's Stadium. 8th Ave., 57th St.; audience 547.
      F. J. Brick
Loew's New York Roof, Broadway & 45th St.; audience 1200
      Mrs. Eleanor Regan.
Burland's Open Air, 985 Prospect Ave.; audience 168.
      M. W. Woodman.
Oval Gardens, Southern Boulevard & 163rd St.; audience 221.
      Nat. Sauberman.
Majestic Roof, St. Nicholas Ave., 185th St.; audience 265.
      L. M. Cockaday.
Loew's American Roof, 8th Ave. and 42nd St.; audience 409.
      Fred. A. Gritzner.
Moorish Gardens; audience 496.
      Fred Rosebury.
Brighton Beach Music Hall; audience 500.
      A. H. Rodde.
Queensboro Athletic Club, L. I. City; audience 500.
      Wm. F. Diehl.
Sumner Theatre, Brooklyn; audience 300.
      Earl Kullman.
White & Welker ringside
White & Welker ringside
    In addition to the foregoing list the voice broadcasting was received in a number of theatres where an admission was charged, including six theatres arranged for in the Pittsburgh district and assigned to the Westinghouse Company, concerning which no report has been received. Detailed figures and total number in the audiences are therefore not available as we go to press.
    Additions or corrections received will be published in the next issue.
    In a great many places where no hall or theatre had been contracted for by the organizations concerned, enterprising and enthusiastic amateurs undertook independent affairs of their own and also took up collections for the benefit of the cause. A detailed report of these undertakings follow:
    W. Harold Warren writes from Asbury Park, N. J., as follows: "My compliments to you for your excellent work during the Dempsey-Carpentier bout. Owing to your perfect enunciation, your clear and vivid descriptions, and your calm and measured speech under such exciting surroundings, I was able to obtain perfect reception in a roller chair on the Asbury Park Boardwalk, using a new type of loop, a detector, and a two-step amplifier, equally as good whether the chair was in motion or at rest. The cheering of the crowd could be distinguished and each sound of the gong seemed as though it were but a few feet from the roller chair instead of in Jersey City, notwithstanding the fact that we were but 100 feet from the noise of the breaking surf. I have sent a check for $13.00 and photo to the N. A. W. A. Again congratulating you."
    At Smithtown, L. I., A. E. Jackson entertained a few friends and sent $1.80 as a donation.
    G. N. Vacca of Newark, N. J., enclosed money order for $3.50 secured through a small gathering of his friends. He states that people who have previously listened on his set to other radiophone stations generally experienced trouble in understanding speech but that on Saturday everyone understood ever word from the Hoboken station.
    From Eastport, Maine, G. C. Brown sent a donation of $2.00 and reported that the voice description was heard well using only one UV-200 Radiotron. Eastport, Maine, is approximately 425 miles air line, from Hoboken.
    At Leighton, Pa., R. A. Gerhard rented a small hall for $10.00 and made the returns available to an audience of eighty-three. He forwarded the balance, $10.75, as a donation to the cause. He stated that the broadcasting was a great success, the voice carrying clearly through the hall and that everybody was pleased.
    At Sea Cliff, L. I., W. R. Nordmeyer, on an equipment entirely home-made with the exception of one vacuum tube, heard the entire voice broadcasting and made it available to a small gathering. He remitted $28.36 taken up as a contribution.
    First Ward Hose Co., of Morristown, N. J., sent a check for $25.00 which was made up in a collection taken by the Company. The treasurer states that an audience of approximately 500 were able to hear all of the returns of the preliminaries and the big fight. The entire fire house was packed on both floors. By means of a two-step amplifier and two large phonograph horns attached to head telephones, every word was made clear to the audience on the first and second floors.
Lackawanna aerial

    George J. Smith organized a small gathering of village notables in the fire house at Valley Stream, L. I., and forwarded a contribution of $9.43.
    C. Waddington states that the voice came in so loud at Clark Mills (ten miles from Utica, N. Y.) that it could be heard several feet away from the telephones. He enclosed $3.50 as a contribution.
    Horace A. Beale, Jr., president of the Parkesburg Iron Company, Parkesburg, Pa., set up a temporary station at the baseball grounds in Parkesburg and the broadcasting was made available for a large number of people. A check for $50.00 was forwarded as a contribution.
    At Brooklyn, N. Y., Kenneth Swezey and several friends listened to the report of the Dempsey-Carpentier fight and he says that they were all greatly impressed with the capabilities of the radiophone "which is now being used to full advantage." He enclosed $1.00 as a contribution. C. Milanio also conducted a small affair at his home and remitted $1.00 as a contribution.
    From Poultney, Vt., F. C. Fassett reports that the voice was strong during the entire broadcasting and that the ringing of the gong between rounds could be clearly heard all over the hall. He forwarded $5.69.
    R. S. Johnson sent word to the city officials of Red Bank, N. J., and their friends to attend a reception of the returns. A fair crowd was on hand at o'clock and he was in the midst of numerous questions when, "hello. hello, this is WJY, Hoboken, New Jersey, speaking." broke in on the room and the crowd was instantly silenced. The affair was an entire success from beginning to end and the hat was passed; $36.50 was dropped into it and has been sent in. He states that from an experimental standpoint the event will go down in history as a most wonderful accomplishment.
    R. E. Brigham of Oneonta, N. Y., states that ten friends listened to the radiophone returns and considered the event remarkably successful. They heard every word and all were well pleased and commented favorably upon the clearness of the speech. Mr. Brigham enclosed a check for $17.00 as a contribution.
    At Tarrytown, N. Y., Old Post Road Garage was used by Fred Koenig because he was unable to secure a hall. He set up his receiver in the show room of the garage, "which by the way," he adds, "was not large enough to accommodate the large crowd which came to hear this wonderful description of the fight by wireless telephone." A collection was taken up to the amount of $35.50, which has been received. Mr. Koenig had hand-bills printed and distributed throughout Tarrytown and the surrounding country before the fight.
    Frank Nowotny was unable to be at home at Orange, N. J., on Saturday during the broadcasting, so he had another young man operate his receiving set for the benefit of several neighbors, with the stipulation that they must all contribute to the cause. He enclosed $2.00 as the amount of the collection taken up.
    A. G. Sidman received the returns at the Montclair (N. J.) Athletic Club and enclosed a contribution of $10.00.
    D. W. Ormsbee accidentally heard of the intention to broadcast the results of the big fight from a fellow commuter and succeeded in hearing the voice very clearly and entertained several friends at Massapequa, L. I. He enclosed $15.00 as a contribution.
    At Shelton, Conn., A. R. Kulich entertained thirty people who were able to dearly understand every word of the broadcasting and has sent $8.00 to be added to the fund.
    At Sag Harbor, L. I., J. Henry Ronkens, Jr., entertained a small audience which was extremely enthusiastic over the excellent results obtained. He enclosed $3.00 for the fund. J.O. Smith & transmitter
    From Rhinebeck, N. Y., George Rosenkranz reports that he had just recently installed a receiving set and was surprised when he found how clearly he could hear the speech from Hoboken on it. He entertained several friends and took up a collection to the amount of $30.73, which has been received.
    At Langhorne, Pa., five persons heard the returns as clearly as if the voice was coming from the next farmhouse. J. Edgar Hires enclosed check for $5.00.
    At Summit, N. J., Robert N. Brockway, Jr., and Leonard Richards, conducted a gathering at a small hall and collected $45.00 which has been remitted.
    At Altoona, Pa., C. O. Amos received the voice broadcasting of the big fight successfully through considerable static, he used a loud speaker in a theatre. When, at the conclusion of the voice description, the result was broadcasted by telegraphy, using straight C. W., the signals were so loud they drowned out the orchestra. He enclosed money order for $4.00 as a contribution from the amateurs concerned in the undertaking.
    From Naugatuck, Conn., Daniel E. Noble reports reception of the fight returns a total success and heard by 500 people assembled in a hall. The voice was as loud as it would have been had the speaker been present shouting a description in the hall. Everybody was highly pleased with the demonstration. He enclosed a check for $55.35.
    C. R. Vincent of the Plainfield Radio Association arranged for the reception of the returns at the Shackamaxon Golf Club, Westfield, N. J. The entire voice description of the fight was clearly received and every body was surprised and delighted. A check for $50.00 was sent in to be added to the fund.
    Paul B. Murphy enclosed a money order with his letter for $10.00, which was obtained from a small gathering at the Nyack (N. Y.) Boat Club. He states that the quality of transmission over the radiophone was excellent and that the returns themselves were of a character that exceeded even the highest expectations.
    From Hoboken, N. J., J. D. Elmdorf, of the Young Men's Christian Association, advises that one of the members experimented in the reception of the voice returns on July 2nd and after a little adjustment was able to hear the voice clearly. They passed the hat among those who listened in and secured $6.00, which has been sent to us to be added to the fund.
    At the Nyack Boat Club, Nyack, N. Y., Mr. Paul B. Murphy made it possible for a party of members to listen to the reports. A collection, amounting to $10, has been received from this gathering.
    Mr. W. B. Thurman, 13A East 37th Street, personally brought to this office $3.25 which was taken up at a small gathering at his home.
    At Buchanan, N. Y., Mr. Michael Lounz entertained a few friends who contributed $7.75. The reports were received on the lawn of his home under a large tree, and everybody was comfortable and very much pleased with the returns.
    Mr. Wilfred P. Luckens, 527 Spring Mill Avenue, Conshohocken, Pa., entertained a small gathering of friends who contributed $2.00 to the cause.
    At Peekskill, N. Y., Mr. Charles R. Doty and Mr. George Olsen received the reports at the Colonial Theatre and the manager donated $20.
    Mr. G. N. Ashley, Chatham, N. Y., has forwarded a cheek for $7.50, contributed by a small party of his friends whom he entertained with the reports.
    At the Radio Institute of America, 326 Broadway, New York, the hat was passed by the instructor, Mr. M. L. Bergin, and $23 was contributed by the students and employees of the Institute.
    At Woodmere, L. I., Robert C. Birkhahn entertained party of friends and the entire voice broadcasting was voted a most wonderful achievement. He enclosed $5.00 as a contribution to the cause. *
    * The total amount received at N. A. W. A. headquarters from small undertakings handled entirely by the amateurs either in small halls, in homes and in some cases in wood-sheds, is approximately $600. The theatre receipts remitted direct to the American Committee for Devastated France and the Navy Club, were of course much greater.
    Reports containing remarks of listeners from a number of scattered points throughout the district covered by the voice transmission tell the story eloquently. The complete success is clearly indicated in the following extracts selected at random from many hundreds of reports received:
    At Hardwick, Vt., the voice was loud through the entire fight and the preliminaries, and was heard without trouble, using two steps of amplification (distance 300 miles).
    On the yacht "Eagle," owned by W. K. Vanderbilt, the operator accidentally ran across the voice description while tuning his set, when 125 miles from New York on Long Island Sound. The voice was fine and clear, and Mr. Vanderbilt, his guests, and all of the crew, were able to hear the description of the preliminaries and the big fight itself. The operator reports that the millionaire and his friends were very much impressed.
    An amateur at Auburndale, Mass., held his receiving headphones against land line telephone transmitter and the voice description was received at a nearby golf club with sufficient audibility to be beard over a room by attachment of a megaphone to the receiver of the land line telephone.
    At Swansea, Mass., (Cape Cod) the entire fight description was heard clearly on a home-made set, one-step amplification.
    At Lawrence, Mass., the entire fight was received on a home-made set with two-step amplifier.
    At Providence, R. I., all details were received clearly with good audibility, using one-step amplification.
    The speech I was exceptionally good at Greenwich, Conn. Audibility was sufficient to enable listeners to hear every word fifteen feet away from telephones.
    From Donora, Pa., (35 miles southwest of Pittsburgh and 350 miles airline from Hoboken) an amateur reported temperature of 90° in the shade, in spite of which all of the fight broadcasting was received clearly. He states that while returns of the big fight were being received from Hoboken, the Westinghouse station at East Pittsburgh, Pa., came on the air and made the announcement that no fight returns had yet been received. New York Theatre
    The entire voice description of the big fight was received at Jamaica, L. I., on an old wire clothesline fifteen feet long, using a galena detector.
    From Greenport, L. I., an amateur sent a complete copy of the voice broadcasting including the preliminaries and it checks as being substantially correct. His report states that the voice was much more clear than over a telephone line to New York City. Greenport is 105 miles air-line from Hoboken.
    At Albany, N. Y., the entire fight returns were received clearly and distinctly on detector and one-step of amplification. Six pairs of telephone receivers were connected in circuit.
    At Stamford, Conn., the entire fight description was heard clearly by twenty-five people by attachment of a megaphone as a loud speaker.
    The voice was heard clear and distinct through considerable static at Buzzards Bay, Mass.
    At Bourne, Mass. (Cape Cod), the voice was clear and the description of the entire fight was received without trouble.
    Bristol, Pa., received the voice clearly, distinctly and strong.
    At Bourne, Mass. (Cape Cod) the voice was clear and loud with two steps of amplification. There was considerable static here.
    At Camp Arey, Orleans, Mass. (Cape Cod), the voice was distinctly audible. Bulletins were telephoned to the local village paper and moving picture show.
    Every word was distinctly heard through heavy static at Jessup, Md.
    At Devault, Pa., the voice was strong, clear and easily read through considerable static. The words were audible with the phones lying on the table.
    As no hall or theatre was secured at Clifton, N. J., John J. Kulik organized a small undertaking of his own and entertained a group of friends and neighbors. The audibility of the voice at Clifton was such that the entire fight description could be heard 200 feet away from the loud speaker horn.
    B. D. Heller of Fordham, N. Y., writes as follows: "The description of the fight was simply wonderful. Even the gong sounded plainly as could be. The broadcasting was received on a little, old loose-coupler, silicon detector and single phone I had stored away for years and only got it out to get my boy started in wireless during vacation. Never expected to hear a 'World Crier' by radiophone. You must have been heard over thousands of miles. Some 'Town Crier' I'll say! Almost thought I was in the front row at the ringside when you counted Carpentier out. It was realistic and impressive to the highest degree."
    Harry B. Fischer, of Brooklyn, writes as follows: "With a 2-step amplifier connected to a small size loose coupler and with the above inserted in two megaphones the voice could be heard clearly and distinctly through three rooms of our apartment, where fifteen persons assembled."
    Mrs. H. W. McMann of 380 Riverside Drive, New York, writes that her son was participating in the reception of the returns at one of the local theatres and that as the afternoon wore on and she began thinking about the fight she got to the point where she could no longer restrain herself and listened in on her son's receiving set. She then describes, in detail, the reception of the fight and pronounces it so remarkable as to be almost unbelievable.
    From Bayonne, N. J., W. A. MacMaster writes that the audience at his home ranged in age from eleven to forty-five years and everyone was intensely interested. He reports that "they all agreed that the case of the wireless amateur took a great stride forward on that Saturday afternoon, and has forwarded a resolution, signed by all those who listened to the returns at his home, requesting that a similar detailed description by radiophone be made of the 1921 World's Series baseball games.
    Miss Mary M. Maurer of Hillside, N. J. writes that her young brother had some difficulty at first in tuning-in the voice and that as she is opposed to prize fighting generally she at first refused to help him, but after hearing a few words come through she got so excited she forgot all about her prejudice against prize fighting. With the set she entertained her entire family, including her grandmother.
    E. L. Versfelt of Montclair, N. J., states that his antenna consisted of a single wire hidden in the moulding of a second story room. Total length of wire twenty-eight feet. The voice was audible all over the house.
    N. W. Meitzler states that he made every effort to secure a hall at Allentown, Pa., but was unsuccessful. He attempted to borrow a megaphone from a local music store, but as Saturday was their busy day he was unsuccessful. He finally rigged up a megaphone in connection with one Baldwin head telephone and in this way entertained a large gathering at his home. First Ward Hose Company
    Captain C. H. Batchelder of the S. S. "Acropolis," radioed thanking the N. A. W. A. for the fight reports received 400 miles at sea. He stated that every word was clearly understood on board the "Acropolis."
    Frank Saalmueller entertained eight persons at his home at Newark, N. J., hearing the entire voice broadcasting on a crystal detector.
    Roy Fisher of Philadelphia, Pa., reports the entire broadcasting clearly heard by ten persons, megaphone and Baldwin head telephone used as a loud speaker. His guests were very much surprised at the clearness of speech and the vividness of the description.
    At Richmond Hill, N. Y., Frank Jacobs had eight guests and only four pairs of telephones, so they took turns. The voice was clear and easily understood. He states that he has purchased an amplifier and a loud speaker in anticipation of the next voice broadcasting from Hoboken.
    Benjamin F. Cutler writes from Stonington, Conn., that the voice description of the preliminaries and the big fight and the ringing of the gong between rounds was clearly heard. He says that the news of the fight by radiophone was just as good as being at the ringside.
    Arthur H. Lynch, from Brooklyn, reports the entire voice broadcasting heard clearly; he had eight sets of head telephones connected to a single tube.
    R. Henry Strahlman received the voice broadcasting for the benefit of the patients, doctors, nurses and others at the Montifiore Hospital in the Bronx.
    A. H. Townsend of Newark, N. J., states that his entire family of six people listened to the radiophone returns using only a crystal detector, one pair of head telephones and a megaphone used as a loud speaker horn.
    Dr. Gordon M. Christine of Philadelphia received all preliminaries and the big fight without a hitch, and could also hear the ringing of the gong between rounds. He states that it certainly is a great advance in broadcasting news.
    G. R. Herbert of the Bronx was so enthusiastic over the voice broadcasting that he had the copy he made of the fight description framed and hung on the wall of his radio station.
    At Frankfort, Philadelphia, S. J. Thackery, using a 2-step amplifier and regular phonograph horn, found the voice easily audible 100 feet from the receiving set. Fifty persons listened to the voice broadcasting at his station.
    F. S. Gostenhofer of New York writes as follows: "While I am one of the many thousands of 'rank outsiders' in wireless who listens in to what the World is saying, doing no sending, I nevertheless feel that I owe you many thanks for the very able manner in which the voice broadcasting of the several fights today, including that between Dempsey and Carpentier was handled. Several people here enjoyed the fights as they progressed. You have not only rendered a great public service but demonstrated once again the remarkable possibilities of the radiophone both at present and for the future."
    The S. S. "Delambro" (at dock at Brooklyn, N. Y.), reports through her operator the use of a Marconi crystal receiver. The voice was by far the best he had ever heard on that type of receiver, and entertained the officers of the vessel and the crew.
    Charles Winters writes that his son, Peter, fifteen years old, has erected a home-made wireless outfit in the back yard of his house at Hackensack, N. J. He states that the boy constructed the whole apparatus out of waste wood and pieces of wire and that if we had an opportunity to look the outfit over we would probably laugh. On the night of July 1st he ran in to his father and exclaimed: "'Father, I hear somebody speaking!' At first I did not believe him, but was easily convinced as I heard the voice myself. Needless to say the young man was greatly excited. We enjoyed the speech and music very much and it was as distinct as if it were in the same room." He further says that when the amateurish, incomplete wireless outfit of a school boy could receive these messages so distinctly it certainly seems to open up an immense future possibility for the radiophone.
    From Chatham, N. J., Edwin Westervelt reports fourteen guests, voice clear, modulation perfect and better than the voice from any radiophone station ever before listened to.
    At Peekskill, N. Y., F. Lesh Williams had several guests who heard the entire voice description clearly on a crystal detector.
    At the home of Lawrence A. Wood, Peekskill, N. Y., thirteen people listened to the radiophone reports of the events at Jersey City. Hopes to hear the radiophone again soon.
    From Schenectady, N. Y., Walter N. Sorgens reports the voice loud and clear; four persons listened to the broadcasting.
    Conrad F. Bond congratulates the N. A. W. A. on the audibility of the radiophone description. He lives a mile outside the village of Collegeville but quite a few persons walked the mile in order to get the radiophone reports. Everybody was surprised and delighted at the clearness of the voice which was received on a loose coupler, fixed condenser, Murdock phones and a galena detector.
    At Roselle, N. J., James M. Scott heard the voice very distinct and did not miss a word. His house became crowded and a number of persons found places on the porch and on the lawn. Bulletins were broadcasted to those outside the house by means of a megaphone.
    Roy R. Neira of New York City intended to receive the broadcasting, but his set went bad, so he rushed over to a friend's house in order to get the returns. He found the friend's house crowded and had to wait in the hall with a number of others while the results were retransmitted by means of a small megaphone.
    George W. Morgenroth states his was the first station in Harrison, N. J. to get the result, of the big fight outdoors to the public, and he carried the idea further by hastily making signs announcing the result and tacking them up about town. He added a line at the bottom of these signs: "Through the courtesy of the National Amateur Wireless Association."
    Charles E. Coyle, member of Engine Company No. 60, East 137th Street, New York City, entertained an audience consisting of members of the company and friends, about twenty-five in all, who proclaimed the demonstration the most wonderful and novel method ever known of broadcasting the result of a boxing match.
    At East Orange, N. J., says Charles Porter, Jr., the broadcasting of the events was all that could be desired. It was very realistic and everybody was excited at the finish.
    At Passaic, N. J., the Economy Electric Company entertained ten persons in its office.
    Werner Electric Company of Ridgewood, N. Y., had its store jammed to the doors with listeners to the voice broadcast which was easily audible all over the place.
    At Montclair, N. J., Eugene Richter had eight people listening. He reports the voice very strong and clear and says: "Never did I dream I could do such a thing! Radiophone! 1600 meters! Eight people getting it all. I wish I could have had 1800 people instead of eight enjoying it. We were all completely thrilled."
    E. F. Stearns of Brooklyn received the broadcasting using a small chunk of tin roof for an aerial; he states that the description was absolutely perfect.
    From Trenton, N. J., F. W. Sutter reports that the voice transmission was heard clearly and distinctly with one vacuum tube; three head sets were connected in series and six persons listened.
    W. H. Clark of Morristown, N. J., says the radiophone was clear and distinct. Twenty persons listened.
    Edwin J. Dunn packed a small set in a valise and went to Maspeth, L. I., where a wire was attached to a tree in a field. The entire broadcasting was clearly heard.
    At Rochelle Park, N. J., Stewart Becker had eighteen phones attached to two Baldwin head telephones and ten guests listened to the reception. Several officials of the Standard Oil Company, White Oil Company and Western Electric Company were present. He states that no clearer speech was ever produced by land telephone. In the same town, the Union County Radio Association had a number of guests who were entertained by a perfect reception of the voice. A written transcript of the description of each bout was made, round by round, and made a part of the records of the Union County Radio Association.
    At Rochelle Park, N. J., Stewart Becker had eighteen friends in a room listening to the voice description. He says they enjoyed it all and had much praise for an organization which could carry out successfully such an enormous undertaking.
    Carroll T. Downes made it possible for thirty-one people to listen to the returns at his home at West Medford, Mass. He kept two theatres informed as well as the ticket sellers in the North Station at Boston who passed on the information to passengers purchasing tickets.
    From South River, N. J., Charles H. Dugan writes: "Through the courtesy of two young men, Fred Cost and his brother, John, I was able to receive first hand information as to the fistic encounter recently held in Jersey City. The boys were generous and permitted a good size crowd to gather in a shed at the rear of their home, while the less fortunate clung about the windows and doorway to have the tidings relayed to them by those at the instruments, using stage whispers, to pass the information along to those outside. The voice of the person at Jersey City who was sending out the news was quite as audible and distinct as one might wish for, even the clang of the gong at the ringside, could be distinctly heard. One elderly woman was so wrought up as the news began coming in that she said even if she was over 70 years old she was sorry that she didn't have five dollars bet on the outcome of the fight. I'm glad she did not, as the excitement for her was a-plenty without it."
    At Elmhurst, Pa., S. M. Boddington entertained twelve persons and remitted $5.00 for the good of the Cause. Harold Warren roller chair
    At Glen Rock, N. J., Ralph Bailey attempted to receive fight returns with a detector and 2-step amplifier, but the voice was so strong as to be unpleasant with this arrangement, and he consequently reduced amplification. One of his guests employed by the "Call" at Paterson, N. J., supplied many details to his paper which the office found they were not getting through land line channels.
    Joseph Haskel lives in a little apartment next to the Sixth Avenue elevated line in New York City, and here, using a home-made set, he states that the voice came as clear as if the speaker were right at his elbow. He sent in a complete copy of the entire voice broadcasting to prove it.
    At Cedarhurst, L. I., C. Willis Woolford entertained several friends, who heard the voice clear and distinct on a crystal detector. His comment is: "Good, glorious, great!"
    At Cartaret, N. J., the Harmony Social Club had 150 guests who listened to the voice broadcasting. The club report states that they were dumfounded at the wonderful demonstration. All agreed that it was better to hear the returns by radiophone than to go through the trouble and inconvenience of personally attending the fight itself.
    Francis S. Williams reports from Hornell, N. Y., the audibility such that six persons listened at one time using only one bulb. Everybody was greatly pleased, and voted the description much superior to the ordinary methods of posting telegraphic reports.
    Ralph B. Shebbey says the voice came clear and distinct at Bristol, Pa., to five persons listening. The gong at the beginning and close of the rounds was clearly heard.
    W. E. Hockman of Auburndale, Mass., arranged for the returns to be received at the Woodlawn Golf Club, the largest golf club in New England. The returns were also furnished to a gathering of neighbors which was so large that many were unable to get into the operator's house.
    Salem, Ohio., proved to be one of the record-breakers, 400 miles by airline from Hoboken. Charles P. Hoyd reports that he entertained several friends and is very enthusiastic "over what amateurs have done, are doing, and will do."
    Among the reports from those who supervised theatre installations is one from William F. Diehl, assigned to the Queensboro A. C., from which these extracts are taken as a specimen of the showmanship features of the program. He says: "The broadcast was received with remarkable intensity and clarity. The output was transferred to a Western Electric loud speaker which made the voice easy to understand in any part of the arena, which by the way seats 8,000 people. It might interest you to know that not a single interruption of the voice was noted during the entire broadcast. Every word was clear and distinct. Not one person could be discovered in the crowd who had ever witnessed a demonstration of radio telephony before, and one could hear a pin drop, it was so quiet during the performance."
    The quotations from the foregoing are from scattered letters out of a collection of hundreds received at N. A. W. A., headquarters. They are representative, but by no means inclusive. The interest of the amateur fraternity and others has been so great that it is impossible to tell how many really listened in, for thousands of stations did not report. But as nearly as can be determined from reports on hand approximately 300,000 persons listened to the broadcasting of the preliminaries and the big fight. Perhaps the audience was larger; certainly it was not smaller.
    There is one thought which runs through a large proportion of the letters received, to the effect that this method of voice broadcasting big events is something which should not be allowed to die. The idea is novel and the method has proved to be so entirely satisfactory to all listeners, even at points double the distance beyond the claimed range of the transmitter, that the National Amateur Wireless Association is being urged by hundreds of people interested in radio to continue the practice.