K/W Call Letters in the United States

Thomas H. White -- January 1, 2014

This is a comprehensive review of K and W call letter assignments for AM band (mediumwave) radio stations in the United States, with an emphasis on stations that are on the "wrong side of the Mississippi".
Sections


Background

K/W MAPThe United States federal government began licencing radio stations in late 1912, and from the beginning it has assigned call letters starting with K and W to commercial and broadcasting stations. Moreover, from the start the policy has been that stations in the west normally got K-- calls, while W-- calls were issued to stations in the east. (Initially ship stations were the reverse, with W assignments in the west, and K in the east).

The original K/W boundary ran north from the Texas-New Mexico border, so at first stations along the Gulf of Mexico and northward were assigned W calls. It was only in late January, 1923 that the K/W boundary was shifted east to the current boundary of the Mississippi River. With this change, K's were assigned to most new stations west of the Mississippi, however, existing W stations located west of the Mississippi were allowed to keep their now non-standard calls.Click here for a detailed map showing the boundary change

NOTES: The source of the Mississippi River is in upper Minnesota, so using it as the K/W boundary leaves a gap in the northern part of the state. In 1987 the Federal Communications Commission noted that the current staff practice was to define the remainder of the boundary as "a line from the headwaters of the [Mississippi] to a point [at the Canadian border] just east of International Falls". This review generally omits stations in Louisiana and Minnesota, because the boundary has not been very strictly followed in those two states. Finally, this review lists stations according to their "community of licence", and does not include stations which only had transmitters on the other side of the divide. (Call letters are assigned according to the station's community of licence--the location of the station's transmitter, even if it is on the other side of the divide, does not matter).

For more detailed information on early U.S. call letter practices, see Mystique of the Three-Letter Callsigns and United States Callsign Policies.

Reasons For The Exceptions

Reviewing the stations on the AM band, many people have noticed that some of them have the "wrong" first letter for the side of the Mississippi River on which they are located. During the ninety years of call letter assignments for AM stations, I came up with six categories of non-conforming stations:
  1. Stations located east of the Mississippi which were assigned calls from the KD-- ship block, instead of W--, during a June 1920 to April 1921 anomaly. (For some reason, during this anomaly almost all new land stations, east and west, got KU-- or KD-- four-letter calls. This included two broadcasting stations that just happened to be first licenced during this time: KDKA and KDPM).

  2. Stations west of the Mississippi River that were licenced before the late January 1923 boundary shift, and were located in the slice of W territory that existed west of the Mississippi prior to the shift. (Originally about 170 stations, not including Minnesota and Louisiana. However, due to very high deletion rates plus later call changes, only eleven of these original calls survive: WEW, WHB, WKY, WOC, WOI, WBAP, WDAY, WJAG, WNAX, WOAI, and WTAW).

  3. Portable stations (prior to 1928), which got W call letters because their original owners were located east of the Mississippi, but settled in a permanent home west of the Mississippi. (Four stations: WBBZ, WIBW, WLBN, and WMBH. There are no examples of a portable crossing in the other direction, i.e. no K portables "anchoring" in W territory).

  4. Regular stations that changed their community of licence to the other side of the K/W divide. (Six stations: KFKX, KSGM, KWEM, WKBB, WPLX and KOTC. NOTE: This omits Louisiana and Minnesota.)

  5. Owner requests--examples: WACO in Waco, Texas; WDBQ in Dubuque, Iowa; WMT (Waterloo [Iowa] Morning Tribune).

  6. Assigned by the Government--three stations. KTGG in Spring Arbor (later Okemos), Michigan reportedly got a "K" callsign because someone at the FCC thought that the "MI" postal code stood for Missouri, a west-of-the-Mississippi state. Also, two additional call assignments appear to have been selected by government regulators: KYWA Chicago, a booster station for KYW, and KOP, licenced to the Detroit Police Department.
Finally, there are about a dozen stations for which I can not come up with any apparent reason--perhaps someone momentarily forgot about the policy, or where the boundary line was, or maybe I just need to do more research. The most prominent of these "undocumented" stations are KQV Pittsburgh, KSD Saint Louis (assigned before the boundary shift--now KTRS), and KYW Chicago (later Philadelphia and Cleveland).


K/W CALLS TODAY
Current AM-band K/W Boundary Exceptions (excluding LA & MN)

The above map lists the current exceptions to the standard of "K stations west of the Mississippi; W stations east" on the AM band. [26 Stations: 18 W's plus 8 K's. This map omits stations in Louisiana and Minnesota because the boundary has not been very strictly followed in those two states].

The color of the station's call letters reflects the reason for its exceptional status:
  1. Purple: 1920-1921 anomaly--KDKA.
  2. Blue: pre-January 1923 boundary shift--WBAP, WDAY, WEW, WHB, WJAG, WKY, WNAX, WOAI, WOC, WOI, WTAW.
  3. Gray: ex-portable--WBBZ, WIBW, WMBH.
  4. Dark Green: moved to other side of the Mississippi-- KSGM.
  5. Red: requested call--KFNS, KWAM, WDBQ, WHO, WMT, WSUI.
  6. Light Green: government assigned call--KTGG.
  7. Black: reason unknown--KFIZ, KQV, KYW.
(NOTE: For a general overview of K and W calls on the U.S. AM band, see Eric Force's U.S. Callsign Distribution map).

STATE STATUS MAPThis map summarizes the current location of W and K stations on the AM band, by state. Yellow highlights the fifteen states in the center of the country which currently have both K and W stations. In the west, in red, are the twelve states (including Hawaii), which have only had stations starting with K. Green designates the single state--Alaska--which had a W station in the past, but now has K stations exclusively. Light blue marks the three states--Arkansas, Mississippi and Ohio--which once had one or more K stations, but now exclusively have W stations. Finally, dark blue marks the nineteen eastern states which have only had W calls.


K/W Trivia

Boundary Switchover Date

Although I haven't been able to find out the exact date that the K/W boundary for land stations switched to the Mississippi River--the change was barely reported in the press--I have been able to narrow it down to late January, 1923. In reviewing the call letter assignments for broadcasting stations in the original W-west-of-the-Mississippi territory, it appears that the change took place sometime between January 19th and January 29th. The first date is when the State Normal School in Mayville, ND was assigned WRAC and the Taylor Radio Shop in Marion, KS was assigned WRAD. These apparently were the last two stations to fall under the old scheme. The next call assignment to a broadcast station located in the original W-west-of-the Mississippi territory that I am aware of did not come until ten days later. This station, licenced to Fred Mahaffey, Jr., in Houston, TX, was assigned KFCV, and from this point on K calls were issued to virtually all stations west of the Mississippi. (KFCV was deleted January 5, 1925).

Double Exceptions

Generally when one of the non-conforming stations switches to a new callsign, it also switches to the proper letter for its side of the dividing line. However, on a number of occasions the government has allowed stations to select new calls that continue to start with the "wrong letter": WHAA / WSUI Iowa City, IA; WKBB / WDBQ Dubuque, IA; WCK / WSBF and WEB / WIL / WRTH / WIL Saint Louis, MO; WJAD / WACO Waco, TX; WJAM / WMT Waterloo, IA; WOAW / WOW Omaha, NE; WNAD / WWLS Norman, OK; KEZK / KFNS Wood River, IL and KWEM / KWAM Memphis, TN.

U.S. Commonwealths, Territories and Possessions
 
world map

Although Alaska and Hawaii were United States territories until 1959, for call letter purposes they were treated as western states, and normally received K callsigns. In addition, Puerto Rico, currently a U.S. commonwealth, and the Virgin Islands have been treated as eastern states, and both received a full range of W calls.

The Philippines, which were a United States possession until independence in 1946, were treated slightly differently. Stations here were only given calls starting with KZ--, until with independence the new nation was assigned its own block of international calls, and its broadcasting stations switched to calls starting with DX-- through DZ--.

The call letter policy for the remaining Pacific territories, in the years following World War II, has been a little more varied. Using the Mississippi River to divide the world into two halves, it appears that the entire Pacific Ocean should fall into K territory. (The International Dateline presumably doesn't have any significance for U.S. call letter policy. Its location is determined by the fact that it is halfway around the world from Greenwich in London, England, but because the K/W call letter boundary is the Mississippi River, not the Thames, it makes more sense to divide the world in halves at the 90 degree longitude mark, which is the location of the Mississippi River).

Most United States-affiliated broadcasting stations located in the Pacific have in fact been assigned K calls, although over the years there have also been a few W assignments. However, currently all the AM stations in Guam, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands have K calls. As far as I can determine, all the broadcasting stations in Micronesia and the Marshall Islands were assigned W calls while they were U.S. territories, for reasons that are not readily apparent. However, after both these territories gained independence, the stations were assigned new calls from their own national allocations, starting with V6- for Micronesia, and V7- in the case of the Marshall Islands.

Extremes

Below are the most extreme "out of place" K's and W's on the AM band that I know of (locations are based on the station's community-of-licence, not their transmitter locations):

K's in the East (excluding Pacific)
Farthest east: KYW-1060 Philadelphia (station moved from Chicago)

Farthest east originally licenced location: KDKA-1020 East Pittsburgh, PA (now Pittsburgh)

W's in the West (excluding Pacific)
Farthest west ever: WLAY Fairbanks, AK 1922-1923

Farthest west ever in the lower 48 states: 1 & 2) WDAH 1922-1940 & WPAT 1922-1924, El Paso, TX; 3) WCAT 1922-1952 Rapid City, SD; 4) WEAV 1922-1923 Rushville, NE

Farthest west currently: 1) WOAI-1200 San Antonio, TX; 2) WKY-930 Oklahoma City, OK; 3) essentially a three-way tie between WJAG-780 Norfolk, NE, WNAX-570 Yankton, SD and WBAP-820 Fort Worth, TX

K/W Switchover Stations

Below are the 52 AM stations I am aware of which have at times had both K and W calls. For each entry, I've tried to list all of the calls these stations have used over the years. If the final call includes a frequency, that means the station is still licenced, otherwise it has been deleted:

K => W
KAZW / KZNE / WTAW-1620 College Station, TX
KBOA / KOTC / WUMY-830 Kennett, MO/Memphis, TN
KDWB / WDGY / WREY-630 Saint Paul, MN/Hudson, WI/Saint Paul, MN
KFGZ / WEMC / WKZO-590 Barrien Springs/Kalamazoo, MI
KFLV / WROK-1440 Rockford, IL
KFLZ / KICK / WOC-1420 Atlantic/Anita/Davenport, IA
KFNG / WREC-600 Coldwater, MS/Whitehaven/Memphis, TN
KGGH / KTSL / WTSL / WAML-1340 Cedar Grove, LA/Shreveport, LA/Laurel, MS
KQYX / WMBH-1560 Joplin, MO
KWKC / KCMO / WHB-810 Kansas City, MO
KWMB / KMFX / WBHA-1190 Wabasha, MN

K => W => K
KANO / KTWN / KKKC / KANO / KBCW / WLOL / KLBP / KLBB / KZTG / KRJJ / KMNQ-1470 Anoka/Brooklyn Park, MN
KAOH / KQDS / WNLT / KBXT / KQDS / KDDS / KQDS-1490 Duluth, MN
KBGG / WSJZ / KBGG-1700 Des Moines, IA
KBJC / KWSJ / KXTR / WDAF / KXTR / KUDL-1660 Kansas City, KS
KFMT / WHAT / WGWY / WDGY / KFAN / KTCN-1130 Minneapolis, MN
KYW / KYW-KFKX / KYW / WRCV / KYW-1060 Chicago, IL/Philadelphia, PA

K => W => K => W => K
KFVE / KWK / KGLD / KASP / WKBQ / KRAM / WKBQ / KKWK / KZJZ / KSLG / KXFN-1380 Saint Louis, MO


W => K
WAAW / KOWH / KMEO / KOWH / KOZN / KOWH / KCRO-660 Omaha, NE
WAIL / WTKL / KBRH-1260 Baton Rouge, LA
WBBY / WRTH / WKLL / WCEO / KEZK / KFNS-590 Wood River, IL
WCAR / KTSA / KAKI / KTSA-550 San Antonio, TX
WCM / KUT / KNOW / KEYI / KEYU / KMOW / KFON / KLGO-1490 Austin, TX
WDAF / KCSP-610 Kansas City, MO
WDAN / WGAQ / KWKH / KSBA / KTBS / KEEL-710 Shreveport, LA
WDJD / KJAL-585 Tafuna, AS
WEAH / KFH / KNSS-1330 Wichita, KS
WEAJ / KUSD Vermillion, SD
WEB / WIL / WRTH / WIL / KZQZ-1430 Saint Louis, MO
WEVE / KRBT-1340 Eveleth, MN
WFAA / KRQX / KLDD / KKWM / KLIF-570 Dallas, TX
WHB / KCMO-710 Kansas City, MO
WJAD / WACO / KKTK / KTFW / KHFX / KCLE-1460 Waco/Burleson, TX
WKAA / KWCR / KSO / KGGO / KDMI / KXNO-1460 Cedar Rapids/Des Moines, IA
WLB / WLB-WGMS / WLB / KUOM-770 Minneapolis, MN
WLBF / KCKN / KRKR / KCKM / KFKF / KNHN / KFEZ / KCKN / KDTD-1340 Kansas City, KS
WLBN / KLRA / KHLT / KBIS / KSYG Chicago, IL (portable)/Little Rock, AR
WMBH / KQYX-1450 Joplin, MO / Galena, KS
WNAD / WWLS / KWPN-640 Norman/Moore, OK
WOAW / WOW / KOMJ / KXSP-590 Omaha, NE
WPE / KFIX / KLDS / KLDS-KMBC / KMBC / KMBZ-980 Kansas City, MO
WQDV / WDIX / KCMC-740 Tupelo, MS/Texarkana, TX
WREN / KKGM / KXTR / KWSJ / KKHK / KYYS-1250 Lawrence/Kansas City, KS
WRR / KAAM / KTCK-1310 Dallas, TX
WSHB / WAVN / WVLE / WTCN / WIMN / WEZU / WMGT / KLBB-1220 Stillwater, MN
WTAW / KZNE-1150 College Station, TX
WWEE / WPLX / KXIQ-1180 Collierville/Germantown, TN/Turrell, AR

W => K => W
WIGL / WAKX / KXTP / WGEE-970 Superior, WI
WLOL / WRRD / KSJN / KNOW / WMNN / WLOL-1330 Minneapolis, MN
WRHM / WTCN / WWTC / KSNE / WWTC-1280 Minneapolis, MN
WTAM / KYW / WKYC / WWWE / WTAM-1100 Cleveland, OH

W => K => W => K
WPBC / WYOO / WAYL / KKSS / KMFY / WAYL / KMZZ / KRXX / KEGE / KKMS-980 Minneapolis/Richfield, MN

Other
KFOY and WAMD consolidated as KSTP-1500 Saint Paul, MN
WQAC / KGRS and WDAG consolidated as KGNC-710 Amarillo, TX

State-by-State Chronological Recap

Listed below are the standard AM stations I was able to uncover which are exceptions to the current K/W dividing line of the Mississippi River.(This list only reviews regular broadcast service station authorizations. For call letter information for temporary grants, check out the information in United States Temporary Broadcast Station Grants: 1922-1928). Most of this information came from reviewing Commerce Department and Federal Radio Commission and Federal Communications Commission records, including the monthly Radio Service Bulletin. (For more information on government station lists, check out Early Radio Station Lists Issued By the U.S. Government)

As noted earlier, the reasons for the exceptions fall into six categories, plus "unknown":
1.  June 1920-April, 1921 anomaly (KD-- calls for all)
2.  West-of-the-Mississippi W territory (i.e. prior to the late-January, 1923 shift)
3.  Portable station which a found permanent home on the opposite side of the Mississippi
4.  Regular station that moved across the Mississippi
5.  Call requested by owner
6.  Government call assignment
?.   Unknown reason

The "out of place" call letters, which are currently in use, are listed in bold, while stations that have been deleted or changed to "conforming" calls are in regular text. In the case where just a year or a month and year are listed, the date is the best estimate I can make using available records:

                            REASON  NOTES
                            ======  ==================
ALASKA
(always K)                                          
09/27/1922 WLAY Fairbanks       ?   deleted 08/21/1923

NOTE: This list only includes private stations, so the various
      government operated facilities in Alaska, such as WVCX Sitka,
      WXLL Big Delta and WCVQ Kodiak, are not included.

ARKANSAS
(W prior to late January 1923)
02/16/1922 WOK  Pine Bluff      2   deleted 06/--/1924
03/28/1922 WSV  Little Rock     2   deleted 11/06/1922 
05/04/1922 WCAC Fort Smith      2   deleted 06/12/1923 
05/13/1922 WCAV Little Rock     2   deleted 03/11/1925 
06/06/1922 WEAX Little Rock     2   deleted 06/11/1923 
06/26/1922 WGAR Fort Smith      2   deleted 11/26/1923 
03/--/1928 WLBN Little Rock     3   x-Chicago portable. Became KLRA 
                                    6/--/1928, deleted 9/--/1997 as KSYG
--/--/2008 WPLX Turrell         4   moved from Germantown, TN, became
                                    KXIQ-1180 03/06/2012

ILLINOIS
(always W)                        
11/09/1921 KYW  Chicago         ?   became KYW-KFKX 10/01/1928 (see)
11/--/1922 KFLV Rockford        ?   became WROK 11/--/1933, WROK-1440
10/01/1928 KYW-KFKX Chicago     4   KFKX was moved from Hastings, NE 
                                    and consolidated with KYW (see
                                    11/09/1921). KFKX was then dropped
                                    from the call on 05/13/1933. KYW 
                                    later moved to Philadelphia, PA
                                    12/11/1934 (see).
12/--/1928 KYWA Chicago         6   booster transmitter for KYW.
                                    deleted 05/--/1930
--/--/1964 KSGM Chester         4   moved from Sainte Genevieve, MO.
                                    KSGM-980
01/29/1991 KEZK Wood River      5   changed from WCEO, see next.
07/09/1993 KFNS Wood River      5   changed from KEZK, see above. 
                                    KFNS-590


IOWA
(W prior to late January 1923)
03/14/1922 WGF  Des Moines      2   deleted 09/29/1923
03/28/1922 WHX  Des Moines      2   deleted 05/--/1922 
04/28/1922 WOI  Ames            2   WOI-640 Ames  
05/09/1922 WOC  Davenport       2   WOC-1420 (call was transferred to 
                                    x-KICK 11/11/34)                 
05/23/1922 WDAX Centerville     2   deleted 01/03/1924 
05/25/1922 WEAB Fort Dodge      2   deleted 10/30/1923 
06/03/1922 WEAU Sioux City      2   deleted 04/28/1927 
06/06/1922 WEAZ Waterloo        2   deleted 11/27/1922
06/23/1922 WGAJ Shenandoah      2   deleted 05/21/1923
06/26/1922 WHAA Iowa City       2   became WSUI 01/29/1925 (see)
06/30/1922 WHAC Waterloo        2   deleted 12/13/1923
06/30/1922 WHAE Sioux City      2   deleted 06/23/1923 
07/--/1922 WIAS Burlington      2   deleted 02/--/1934 (Ottumwa)
07/--/1922 WKAA Cedar Rapids    2   became KWCR 11/--/1925,
                                    now KXNO-1460
07/--/1922 WHAI Davenport       2   deleted 12/--/1923
07/--/1922 WIAU Le Mars         2   deleted 05/--/1924
07/--/1922 WIAH Newton          2   deleted 12/--/1923
07/--/1922 WIAE Vinton          2   deleted 06/--/1923
08/01/1922 WJAM Cedar Rapids    2   became WMT 11/11/1928 (see)
09/--/1922 WLAT Burlington      2   deleted 01/--/1924
09/--/1922 WNAG Cresco          2   deleted 01/--/1923
09/--/1922 WLAR Marshalltown    2   deleted 02/--/1923
09/--/1922 WMAR Waterloo        2   deleted 06/--/1923
10/--/1922 WPAF Council Bluffs  2   deleted 10/--/1923
10/--/1922 WOAD Sigourney       2   deleted 05/--/1924
12/--/1922 WQAK Dubuque         2   deleted 10/--/1923
12/--/1922 WRAN Waterloo        2   deleted 05/--/1925
04/15/1924 WHO  Des Moines      5   WHO-1040 Des Moines
01/29/1925 WSUI Iowa City       5   changed from WHAA, see 06/26/1922.
                                    WSUI-910
11/11/1928 WMT  Waterloo        5   changed from WJAM, see 08/01/1922.
                                    WMT-600, Cedar Rapids
12/--/1939 WKBB Dubuque         4   moved from East Dubuque, IL--
                                    see next. 
03/15/1951 WDBQ Dubuque         5   changed from WKBB, see previous. 
                                    WDBQ-1490 Dubuque
06/06/2002 WSJZ Des Moines      5   changed from KBGG, call changed back to
                                    KBGG-1700 6/18/2002


KANSAS
(W prior to late January 1923)      
03/28/1922 WAH  El Dorado       2   deleted 03/06/1923 
03/23/1922 WEY  Wichita         2   deleted 06/23/1923 
04/05/1922 WBL  Anthony         2   deleted 12/15/1924 
04/06/1922 WTG  Manhattan       2   deleted 12/19/1925
04/13/1922 WAAZ Emporia         2   deleted 01/28/1924 
04/14/1922 WAAP Wichita         2   deleted 10/15/1923 
05/15/1922 WDAD Lindsborg       2   deleted 11/07/1923 
05/25/1922 WEAD Atwood          2   deleted 08/13/1923 
05/26/1922 WEAH Wichita         2   became KFH 12/--/1925. Now KNSS-1330
06/08/1922 WFAD Salina          2   deleted 03/08/1923 
06/17/1922 WFAY Independence    2   deleted 04/09/1923 
07/--/1922 WHAN Wichita         2   deleted 11/--/1922
08/--/1922 WJAQ Topeka          2   deleted 07/--/1924
09/--/1922 WLAS Hutchinson      2   deleted 06/--/1923
09/--/1922 WMAG Liberal         2   deleted 06/--/1923
10/--/1922 WNAK Manhattan       2   deleted 04/--/1923
11/--/1922 WOAJ Parsons         2   deleted 01/--/1924
11/--/1922 WPAM Topeka          2   deleted 10/--/1924
12/--/1922 WPAR Beloit          2   deleted 12/--/1924
01/--/1923 WRAD Marion          2   deleted 03/--/1924
04/--/1927 WREN Lawrence        5   became KKGM 07/30/1999, now 
                                    KYYS-1250 Kansas City
01/--/1928 WIBW Topeka          3   x-Chicago portable. WIBW-580 Topeka
05/--/1928 WLBF Kansas City         moved from Kansas City, MO (see 
                                    11/--/1926), became KCKN 11/--/1936.
                                    Now KDTD-1340.
01/19/2007 WDAF Kansas City     5   Call changed from KXTR. 2/12/2007 returned
                                    to KXTR, now KUDL-1660.

LOUISIANA
(W before late January 1923, split afterwards)                

NOTE: I have not prepared a detailed list for Louisiana, because the 
      Mississippi River runs through the state, so the K/W boundary
      has not been strictly followed.


MICHIGAN
(always W) 
                       
03/18/1922 KOP  Detroit         6   deleted 11/28/25
04/23/1923 KFGZ Barrien Springs ?   became WEMC 01/26/1925, now
                                    WKZO-590 Kalamazoo
10/--/1923 KFLB Menominee       ?   deleted 06/--/1925
12/--/1923 KFMW Houghton        ?   deleted 06/--/1926
08/15/1985 KTGG Spring Arbor    6   KTGG-1540


MINNESOTA
(W before late January 1923, split afterwards) 

NOTE: I have not prepared a detailed list for Minnesota. The Mississippi
      River runs through the state, so the K/W boundary has not been 
      strictly followed. This is particularly true in the northern part
      of the state, where the demarcation has been somewhat vague, 
      because the Mississippi doesn't go all the way to the Canadian
      border. 


MISSISSIPPI
(always W)                        
01/--/1924 KFNG Coldwater       ?   changed to WREC 06/--/1925. Later 
                                    moved to Whitehaven, TN, then 
                                    Memphis. WREC-600 Memphis 

MISSOURI
(W prior to late January 1923)       
02/17/1922 WOQ  Kansas City     2   deleted 06/14/1934 
02/23/1922 WOS  Jefferson City  2   deleted 03/27/1936 
03/23/1922 WEW  Saint Louis     2   WEW-770 Saint Louis
04/03/1922 WCK  Saint Louis     2   became WSBF 06/--/1925 (see) 
04/05/1922 WEB  Saint Louis     2   became WIL 01/--/1925 (see)
04/05/1922 WPE  Kansas City     2   relicenced as KFIX 07/03/1923,
                                    now KMBZ-980 Kansas City
04/12/1922 WAAE Saint Louis     2   deleted 09/23/1922 
04/13/1922 WAAN Columbia        2   deleted 03/16/1925 
05/10/1922 WHB  Kansas City     2   WHB-810 Kansas City
05/16/1922 WDAF Kansas City     2   became KCSP-610 09/23/2003
05/31/1922 WEAK Saint Joseph    2   deleted 09/26/1923 
06/10/1922 WFAK Brentwood       2   deleted 09/--/1922 
06/14/1922 WFAQ Cameron         2   deleted 06/13/1924 
07/--/1922 WHAH Joplin          2   deleted 09/--/1924
07/--/1922 WJAC Joplin          2   deleted 01/--/1923
07/--/1922 WIAI Springfield     2   deleted 06/--/1924
07/--/1922 WIAT Tarkio          2   deleted 12/--/1923
08/--/1922 WLAB Carrollton      2   deleted 10/--/1922
08/--/1922 WJAT Marshall        2   deleted 06/--/1924
08/--/1922 WMAD Rockport        2   deleted 07/--/1923
08/--/1922 WKAS Springfield     2   deleted 12/--/1923
09/--/1922 WMAJ Kansas City     2   deleted 06/--/1924
10/--/1922 WNAR Butler          2   deleted 11/--/1925
10/--/1922 WMAY Saint Louis     2   deleted 06/--/1931
11/--/1922 WOAL Webster Groves  2   deleted 02/--/1924
11/29/1922 WPAG Independence    2   deleted 01/05/1923
12/02/1922 WQAB Springfield     2   deleted 11/11/1923
01/--/1923 WRAO Saint Louis     2   deleted 02/--/1925
01/16/1923 WSAB Cape Girardeau  2   deleted 07/17/1925
01/--/1925 WIL  Saint Louis     5   changed from WEB--see 04/05/1922,
                                    12/04/1990, 6/29/2005
06/--/1925 WSBF Saint Louis     5   changed from WCK, see 04/03/1922. 
                                    deleted 11/30/1928.
11/--/1926 WLBF Kansas City     ?   moved to Kansas City, KS
                                    05/--/1928 (see)
07/--/1927 WMBH Joplin          3   x-portable from Chicago, became KQYX
                                    07/25/2001 (see). KQYX-1450 Galena, KS
12/04/1990 WRTH Saint Louis     5   changed from WIL--see 01/--/1925,
                                    06/29/2005.
02/01/1994 WKBQ Saint Louis     5   changed from KASP. Changed to KRAM
                                    02/22/1995, back to WKBQ 03/21/1996,
                                    to KKWK 02/16/1998, now KXFN-1380
07/25/2001 WMBH Joplin          5   changed from KQYX, see 07/--/1925.
                                    WMBH-1560
06/29/2005 WIL Saint Louis      5   changed from WRTH, became KZQZ 03/05/2008.
                                    See 12/04/1990. Now KZQZ-1430

(NOTE: KSD, Saint Louis (now KTRS-550), first licenced 03/14/1922, should
       have been a W call, since it came before the January 1923 shift)

NEBRASKA
(W prior to late January 1923)       
12/29/1921 WOU  Omaha           2   deleted 06/23/1923 
03/30/1922 WDV  Omaha           2   deleted 02/07/1923 
04/19/1922 WAAW Omaha           2   became KOWH 04/--/1939, now KCRO-660
05/06/1922 WCAJ University Place2   deleted 08/01/1933
06/03/1922 WEAV Rushville       2   deleted 06/23/1923 
06/16/1922 WFAV Lincoln         2   deleted 04/30/1927
06/26/1922 WGAT Lincoln         2   deleted 04/09/1923
07/--/1922 WIAX Lincoln         2   deleted 02/--/1923
07/--/1922 WJAB Lincoln         2   deleted 02/--/1925
07/--/1922 WKAC Lincoln         2   deleted 09/--/1923
07/--/1922 WIAK Omaha           2   deleted 07/--/1925
07/27/1922 WJAG Norfolk         2   WJAG-780 Norfolk
08/--/1922 WKAM Hastings        2   deleted 12/--/1922
08/--/1922 WLAD Hastings        2   deleted 12/--/1922
08/--/1922 WLAF Lincoln         2   deleted 02/--/1923
08/--/1922 WMAH Lincoln         2   deleted 03/--/1925
08/22/1922 WNAL Omaha           2   deleted 09/--/1928
09/22/1922 WOAE Fremont         2   deleted 01/06/1925
10/--/1922 WRAR David City      2   deleted 10/--/1923
10/--/1922 WSAS Lincoln         2   deleted 04/--/1923
10/--/1922 WPAA Wahoo           2   deleted 06/--/1923
11/27/1922 WOAW Omaha           2   became WOW 12/16/1926 (see)
11/--/1922 WTAU Tecumseh        2   deleted 06/--/1925
12/--/1922 WQAY Hastings        2   deleted 08/--/1923
12/16/1926 WOW  Omaha           5   changed from WOAW--see 11/27/1922, be-
                                    came KOMJ 11/22/1999, now KXSP-590

NORTH DAKOTA
(W prior to late January 1923)
05/23/1922 WDAY Fargo, ND       2   WDAY-970 Fargo
08/--/1922 WKAJ Fargo           2   deleted 11/--/1922
10/--/1922 WOAB Grand Forks     2   deleted 10/--/1923
10/--/1922 WMAW Wahpeton        2   deleted 04/--/1924
12/14/1922 WPAK Fargo           2   deleted 05/09/1927
01/19/1923 WRAC Mayville        2   deleted 06/15/1923


OHIO
(always W)                        
07/--/1922 KDPM Cleveland       1    deleted 1/--/1926 (first assigned
                                     this call as a non-broadcast 
                                     station on 02/--/1921)
02/13/1956 KYW  Cleveland       5    changed from WTAM, later changed 
                                     to WKYC 06/19/65 (see Philadelphia,
                                     PA). Now WTAM-1100.


OKLAHOMA
(W prior to late January 1923)
03/16/1922 WKY  Oklahoma City   2   WKY-930 Oklahoma City
03/29/1922 WEH  Tulsa           2   deleted 06/12/1923
05/23/1922 WDAV Muskogee        2   deleted 01/15/1923
06/14/1922 WEH  Tulsa           2   deleted 06/11/1923
06/19/1922 WGAF Tulsa           2   deleted 11/20/1922
07/--/1922 WHAT Yale            2   deleted 11/--/1922
08/--/1922 WKAK Okemah          2   deleted 06/--/1923
09/--/1922 WOAA Ardmore         2   deleted 12/--/1923
09/26/1922 WNAD Norman          2   became WWLS 12/07/1981 (see)
09/--/1922 WMAB Oklahoma City   2   deleted 06/--/1924
09/--/1922 WLAL Tulsa           2   deleted 04/--/1927 (?)
09/--/1922 WNAF Enid            2   deleted 02/--/1923
11/--/1922 WPAC Okmulgee        2   deleted 01/--/1925
07/--/1928 WBBZ Ponca City      3   x-portable from Chicago. WBBZ-1230
12/07/1981 WWLS Moore           5   changed from WNAD, see 09/26/1922.
                                    Became KWPN-640 04/04/2012


PENNSYLVANIA
(always W)
10/27/1920 KDKA East Pittsburgh 1  KDKA-1020 Pittsburgh
01/09/1922 KQV  Pittsburgh      ?  KQV-1410 Pittsburgh (first assigned
                                   this call as a non-broadcast station on 
                                   10/--/1921) 
12/11/1934 KYW  Philadelphia       station moved from Chicago, IL
                                   12/11/1934. KYW call transferred to 
                                   Cleveland, OH 02/13/1956. X-KYW
                                   became WRCV. Station became KYW
                                   again 06/19/1965. 

 
SOUTH DAKOTA
(W prior to late January 1923)      
05/09/1922 WCAT Rapid City      2   deleted 10/28/1952
05/27/1922 WEAJ Vermillion      2   became KUSD 10/--/1925, deleted
                                    11/--/1994
06/14/1922 WFAT Sioux Falls     2   deleted 06/13/1924 
08/08/1922 WJAU Yankton         2   deleted 01/02/1923
11/--/1922 WNAX Yankton         2   WNAX-570 Yankton


TENNESSEE
(always W)
--/--/1953 KWEM Memphis         4   moved from West Memphis, AR--
                                    see next.
03/31/1959 KWAM Memphis         5   call change from KWEM--
                                    see above. Now KWAM-990.
12/--/2011 KOTC Memphis         4   moved from Kennett, MO. Became
                                    WUMY-830 11/18/2013

TEXAS
(W prior to late January 1923)       
03/16/1922 WPA  Fort Worth      2   deleted 05/24/1923 
03/22/1922 WCM  Austin          2   relicenced as KUT 10/30/1925, now 
                                    KLGO-1490 Austin
03/13/1922 WRR  Dallas          2   became KAAM 04/14/1978. Now 
                                    KTCK-1310. (First assigned the WRR
                                    call as a non-broadcast station on
                                    08/05/1921)
03/23/1922 WEV  Houston         2   deleted 01/10/1925
03/29/1922 WTK  Paris           2   deleted 11/20/1922
04/26/1922 WBAP Fort Worth      2   WBAP-820 Fort Worth, TX
05/06/1922 WCAK Houston         2   deleted 01/10/1925
05/09/1922 WCAR San Antonio     2   became KTSA 02/--/1927 (?),
                                    now KTSA-550
05/16/1922 WDAG Amarillo        2   merged 06/04/1935 with KGRS as 
                                    KGNC. Now KGNC-710
05/16/1922 WDAH El Paso         2   deleted 10/01/1940 
05/19/1922 WDAO Dallas          2   deleted 06/--/1924 
06/05/1922 WFAA Dallas, TX      2   became KRQX 11/--/83, now KLIF-570
06/06/1922 WEAY Houston         2   deleted 10/24/1925 
06/09/1922 WFAH Port Arthur     2   deleted 08/27/1924 
06/12/1922 WFAL Houston         2   deleted 11/17/1922 
06/14/1922 WGAB Houston         2   deleted 03/23/1923 
06/12/1922 WFAL Houston         2   deleted 11/17/1922 
06/29/1922 WHAB Galveston       2   deleted 06/--/1924 
07/--/1922 WIAC Galveston       2   deleted 01/--/1925
07/--/1922 WJAE San Antonio     2   deleted 02/--/1923
07/--/1922 WJAD Waco            2   became WACO 02/--/1930 (see)
07/--/1922 WKAF Wichita Falls   2   deleted 11/--/1925  
08/--/1922 WMAM Beaumont        2   deleted 10/--/1923
08/--/1922 WKAL Orange          2   deleted 06/--/1923
08/--/1922 WLAJ Waco            2   deleted 06/--/1924
09/--/1922 WQAQ Abilene         2   deleted 01/--/1925
09/--/1922 WRAU Amarillo        2   deleted 11/--/1923
09/--/1922 WPAN Houston         2   deleted 12/--/1922
09/--/1922 WOAI San Antonio     2   WOAI-1200 San Antonio
10/--/1922 WNAS Austin          2   deleted 06/--/1924
10/07/1922 WTAW College Station 2   WTAW-1620 College Station
10/--/1922 WSAV Houston         2   deleted 09/--/1925
10/--/1922 WWAX Laredo          2   deleted 11/--/1923
10/--/1922 WWAC Waco            2   deleted 06/--/1924
11/04/1922 WOAF Tyler           2   deleted 04/10/1925
11/--/1922 WOAZ Stamford        2   deleted 11/--/1923 
11/21/1922 WRAA Houston         2   deleted 07/15/1925
12/--/1922 WPAT El Paso         2   deleted 06/--/1924
12/--/1922 WQAC Amarillo        2   became KGRS 11/--/1926, merged 
                                    06/04/1935 with WDAG as KGNC.
                                    Now KGNC-710.
12/--/1922 WSAT Plainview       2   deleted 06/--/1924
02/--/1930 WACO Waco            5   changed from WJAD, see 07/--/1922.
                                    Became KKTK 06/24/1996. Now
                                    KCLE-1460 Burleson


WISCONSIN
(always W)                        
07/--/1923 KFIZ Fond Du Lac     ?   KFIZ-1450 Fond du Lac
02/24/1982 KXTP Superior        5   changed from WAKX. Became 
                                    WGEE-970 05/01/2003