Efficient communication is critical for military effectiveness. Marconi's groundbreaking radio experiments immediately got the attention of all of the world's military, as radio promised to be an important new method of communication, especially at sea.

The wire telegraph lines on land, in conjunction with undersea cables, had during the previous decades linked the entire world. However, the international lines could easily be cut in wartime -- sometimes sections were even seized and rerouted by splicing -- and they were also largely under British control, which could be problematic for U.S. interests if in a future conflict Great Britain was either neutral or an adversary. In 1898, following its successes in the Spanish-American War, the United States now had vital interests spread throughout the world. Radio had tremendous potential for providing a more secure means of international communication.

In addition to military needs, the Navy also had civilian responsibilities. It operated the Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C., which kept the official time for the nation, and its Hydrographic Office issued navigation bulletins for both the military and merchant marine. Radio would greatly extend the reach of these services. In addition, Navy shore stations handled private telegram traffic in locations were there were no commercial stations.

The most comprehensive review of radio in the U.S. Navy is Captain Linwood S. Howeth's 1963
History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy. (According to Howeth, although the 1901 Annual Report suggested that the homing-pigeon service be discontinued, homing-pigeons continued to be used by the Navy at least through the early 1940's). A more recent book, which reviews in detail the interplay between the Navy and the various private radio companies, is Susan J. Douglas' 1987 "Inventing American Broadcasting".



Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1899.

Report of G. W. Denfeld, Lieutenant, United States Navy, Naval Inspector of Electrical Appliances, Bureau of Equipment, September 26, 1899:
Page 378:
REPORT  OF  THE  NAVAL  INSPECTOR  OF  ELECTRICAL  APPLIANCES.

SIGNALING  APPARATUS  AND  WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The night signaling sets have not given general satisfaction, due to the constant repairs necessary to the cables. In order to overcome this difficulty specifications have been prepared for a cable of 16 wires in one length, bound together with marling hitches. In this cable the neat appearance has been sacrificed for the sake of durability and reliability.
    During the past year successful experiments have been carried on in foreign services with wireless telegraphy. This system has many advantages over the present methods, as the weather conditions do not prevent its use, and signals can be transmitted at greater distances, but its usefulness is limited to the sending of one signal at a time, and other instruments signaling would lead to confusion. The Marconi system will probably be installed on two of our ships in order to determine its usefulness under service conditions.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1900.

Report of R. B. Bradford, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1900:
Pages 319-320:
THE  MARCONI  SYSTEM  OF  WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The Bureau has been much interested in the experiments of Mr. G. Marconi in transmitting signals by electric waves, commonly known as the Marconi wireless telegraphy.
    During the British naval maneuvers in the summer of 1899 this system was installed on board of three ships of the Channel squadron for experimental purposes. The result of these experiments was so successful that when, later on, Mr. Marconi brought to this country three sets of his apparatus for the use of the New York Herald in reporting the international yacht races, the Department, at the recommendation of the Bureau, directed a board of four officers to observe and report upon the working of the system.
    This report was so favorable that the Department placed two ships and a torpedo boat of the North Atlantic Squadron at the disposal of Mr. Marconi for further experiments in connection with a third station, established by permission of the Treasury Department on the grounds of the Highland Lights, near the entrance to the port of New York. Another board of experts, consisting of Lieut. Commander J. T. Newton, U. S. N. senior member, and Lieuts. J. B. Bush, U. S. N., and F. K. Hill, U. S. N., was detailed to carry out a series of tests with a view of fully ascertaining the capabilities and usefulness of Mr. Marconi's devices. The ships New York and Massachusetts and the torpedo boat Porter were the vessels that participated in the experiments.
    After a series of trials lasting over a week, in the port of New York and at sea off the Highland Lights, the board made a favorable report on the usefulness of the Marconi system. The only serious defect found is commonly known as "interference," and may briefly be described as follows:
    When signals are being transmitted from one station to another, as between the U. S. S. New York and the Highland Lights, for instance, and another vessel comes within signaling distance and attempts communication with the Highland Lights, then the signals from the two ships become confused, and the receiving station on shore is unable to distinguish between them. Mr. Marconi claimed that he could overcome this defect, but did not do so. It is said that he has since perfected apparatus which will, in a measure, accomplish this result.
    Notwithstanding this defect, the board recommended that Mr. Marconi's system be adopted for further trial in the Navy.
    The Department did not consider it advisable to conduct any further experiments at that time.
    During the past summer apparatus similar to the Marconi system, but more or less crude, was installed at the naval torpedo station, Newport, R. I., and instructions given to the class of officers in attendance.
    After a careful study of the Marconi system, the Bureau is convinced that its chief value is for use at sea, for the purpose of communication between ships and between ships and shore stations.
    The Marconi apparatus has been installed on board of some of the trans-Atlantic German passenger steamers and successfully used for the purpose of announcing their approach to the coast.
    The British Admiralty, after several extensive trials of the system, have just entered into a contract with the Marconi company for the installation of his apparatus on board of 32 ships, and its maintenance for a period of fourteen years. An outfit, complete for each ship, is supplied by the Marconi company at a cost of 100. An annual royalty of 100 per ship is paid to the company for a period of fourteen years. Each outfit is tested, and must be satisfactory for a distance of 65 miles; the two testing stations are Portland and Portsmouth. Naval signalmen must be instructed in the use of the apparatus by the Marconi company, free of cost. The contract further provides that should additional outfits be installed on board ships of the British navy the royalty shall be reduced in accordance with the number.
    The term of fourteen years was probably selected as that is the period of the life of British patents. These patents were issued in the year 1900, the latest said to cover certain valuable improvements preventing "interference" and the reduction of the height of the necessary sending and receiving aerial wires. Mr. Marconi has taken out patents on his apparatus in this country.
    The Bureau recommends the installation of the Marconi devices on board of several ships of the Navy, provided it can be done at a reasonable cost.

Report of N. E. Mason, Commander U. S. N., Inspector of Ordnance in Charge, Bureau of Ordnance, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., September 1, 1900:
Pages 617-618:
ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  THE  NAVAL  TORPEDO  STATION.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY  OUTFIT.

    By permission of the Chief of Bureau of Equipment, Lieut. J. B. Blish, U. S. N., on duty in that Bureau, commenced the installation of a wireless telegraphy outfit at this station, most of the necessary instruments being purchased or prepared at the New York Navy-Yard and some being improvised here.
    Lieutenant Blish was compelled to leave on account of orders abroad before the completion of the installation. Since completion, this outfit has been very successfully used, under the immediate charge of Lieut. E. E. Capehart, in the instruction of the classes of officers and enlisted men in wireless telegraphy, very interesting lectures on the subject, prepared from notes by Lieutenant Blish and from other sources, being delivered by Lieutenant Capehart. It is suggested that this outfit be perfected by the addition of all the latest improvements and that experimental work with it be still carried on.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1901.

Report of R. B. Bradford, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1901:
Pages 380-381:
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    Reference is made to the last annual report of the Bureau on this subject. In continuation of the investigations therein described, the Bureau has paid particular attention during the year to the practical development of wireless telegraphy on account of its importance for use in the Navy.
    At the request of the Bureau, the Department in April last ordered a board for the purpose of considering and reporting upon the advisability of discontinuing the homing-pigeon service used for the transmission of messages from distant points and substituting in lieu thereof some system of wireless telegraphy. After various changes in its membership the board reported in May to the effect that the homing-pigeon service should be discontinued as soon as some system of wireless telegraphy is adopted. In the opinion of the Bureau the pigeon service should be discontinued at once, since it does not appear to be of any practical use at present, nor has it in the past developed any great promise of success in naval operations.
    The board above mentioned did not in its researches include any practical tests of the various systems of wireless telegraphy used in this country. The Bureau has taken the matter up and investigations are now in progress with a view of carefully ascertaining the exact condition of the many systems of wireless telegraphy more or less used or recommended.
    An officer of the Bureau recently witnessed the efforts of various press companies to report by means of wireless telegraphy the progress of the international yacht races. The systems in use for that purpose were those of the Marconi Company, the American Wireless Telegraph Company (De Forest system), and the American Wireless Telegraph and Telephone Company. It was clearly shown during the races that the difficulties of "interference" could not be overcome with the apparatus used by the above mentioned companies. When there was no interference, however, generally speaking, the appliances of all companies worked successfully.
    There appears to be little doubt that the Marconi apparatus has been considerably improved during the past year. Claims are made that the difficulty of "interference" can be overcome, but the Bureau is not aware that any positive exhibition or demonstration has been made to this end. Practical improvements have been made in the aerial wire by grounding it through the primary of an induction coil.
    It has been generally stated that wireless messages have been exchanged over a distance of 186 miles by the use of the Marconi apparatus; also that reports have passed between British war ships at a distance of 160 miles.
    The New York Herald has installed on board the Government light-ship anchored off New South Shoals a set of Marconi apparatus for the purpose of reporting the arrival of trans-Atlantic steamers. Another station, with similar appliances for the purpose of receiving these messages from the light-ship, has been established on Nantucket Island near the village of Siasconset. Several of the largest trans-Atlantic steamers have had Marconi's apparatus installed on board, and its use is generally attracting the attention of the commercial world. For instance, it is stated that Lloyds, after having failed to successfully develop a wireless system of its own, has now adopted the Marconi system for its shore stations, where signals from passing ships are received.
    Most of the principal naval powers have adopted some form of wireless telegraphy for their ships. Great Britain and Italy use the Marconi system; Germany the Slaby system, and France and Russia the Ducretet system. It is believed, however, from the reports received, that none are satisfactory.
    Claims of superiority are made for certain features adopted by some of the American wireless companies. For example, the De Forest system includes the use of a motor generator for transmission, by the aid of which it is expected to obtain a mechanical tuning between the sending and receiving stations and thus avoid interference. It is not believed that this mechanism has passed beyond the experimental stage. Experiments in the same field, for the same purpose, are being conducted by Mr. Nikola Tesla, and the results are awaited with much interest.
    It does not appear advisable to the Bureau to adopt any particular system at present, or to acquire any more apparatus than necessary for purposes of instruction. It is clear that no system has as yet passed beyond the experimental stage.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1902.

Report of R. B. Bradford, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1902:
Page 375-376:
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The Bureau has, in its annual reports since the advent of wireless telegraphy, kept the Department advised briefly of the progress of this new method of transmitting signals from distant points.
    In accordance with the wishes of the Department, no active steps were taken with a view of investigating the merits of any particular design of wireless-telegraph apparatus until about one year ago. In October, 1901, Commander F. M. Barber, U. S. Navy (retired), residing in Paris was, at the request of the Bureau, especially detailed duty for in connection with the investigation of this subject on the Continent of Europe where wireless-telegraph appliances have been chiefly developed. Since this date Commander Barber has made numerous valuable reports containing a great amount of information on this matter. He is constantly advising the Bureau of the latest developments and inventions.
    Very great attention is being paid by foreign navies to this method of signaling. Changes are constantly being made, and the literature on wireless telegraphy has become extensive. Nearly every book on the subject, however, is out of date by the time it is printed.
    There are four systems that have been developed in Europe which, after investigation, appeared promising, viz, the Slaby-Arco and Braun-Siemens-Halske, manufactured in Berlin, and the Rochefort and Ducretet, manufactured in Paris. The Bureau has purchased two sets of each, also certain appliances from other makers which appeared worthy of investigation.
    When these outfits were ready for delivery, at the request of the Bureau, Lieut. J. M. Hudgins, U. S. Navy, and Chief Electricians James H. Bell and William C. Bean were directed by the Department to proceed to Paris and report to Commander Barber for instruction in the proper methods of operating all of these appliances. The knowledge and experience gained by Lieutenant Hudgins and Chief Electricians Bell and Bean have been of great value in installing the apparatus for testing purposes and instructing navy signalmen in its use, care, and maintenance.
    It is the intention of the Bureau to test these different kinds of wireless-telegraph apparatus in competition. For this purpose a station has been prepared at the navy-yard, Washington, D. C., and another at Annapolis, Md. The distance between these stations is about 30 miles. Upon the completion of tests entirely overland, it is proposed to install one set of each kind of apparatus on board of a ship and the other set at Annapolis, Md., in order to conduct tests from ship to shore at varying distances. The next step will be to install one set of each apparatus on board of a ship, each ship proceeding to sea for tests at varying distances and outside of any possible land interference. These tests are in progress at the present time by a board of five officers, but it is too early to predict what the result will be.
    It is proposed to test other systems of wireless-telegraph apparatus in addition to those mentioned, if satisfactory arrangements can be made for their acquisition, should the Department so desire after the tests are completed. The Bureau has made arrangements for obtaining a duplicate set from the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company.
    In this connection, the Bureau regrets that it has been unable to reach any satisfactory arrangement with the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company for the purchase of its appliances, should it be desired, after testing the same. The company has offered a duplicate set for test, to be returned after the trials have been completed. This company requires, however, the payment of a given sum for each set upon delivery and a royalty for each year during the life of the patents. The aggregate cost of a set under such an agreement would be very great. In addition, it is illegal to obligate the payment of money beyond a single fiscal year. The Bureau regrets that it has been unable to reach a satisfactory basis for the possible acquisition of appliances which have such a good reputation as those of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company.
    It is further proposed to establish wireless-telegraph stations for the purpose of instructing officers and men at such stations as Newport, R. I., New York, N. Y., San Francisco, Cal., and possibly other naval stations. In order to ascertain the effect of heat, which is said to be injurious to the successful working of wireless apparatus, a station will be established at Key West, Fla.
    Most naval powers are far in advance of the United States in the installation of wireless-telegraph appliances on board of naval ships. It is the opinion of the Bureau, however, that thus far no ground has been lost by reason of the conservative progress of this country in adopting some particular system and supplying it to vessels of the Navy. The latter are being prepared, so far as the necessary changes in their masts are concerned, as opportunity offers, and many are ready for the installation of the apparatus, whenever supplied. This may be done without the appliances of a dockyard.
    The Bureau desires to invite the attention of the Department to the paucity of officers now on duty in connection with the subject of wireless telegraphy. In foreign navies commissions of distingushed officers are engaged solely on this important service.
    In France a commission of five naval officers, headed by a captain, with the addition of an army officer, a member of the engineer corps, and the greatest expert in wireless telegraphy in France, is constantly engaged on the subject. This commission is assisted by two boards of naval officers, each composed of five members.
    In England, Germany, Austria, and Russia, the subject is in the hands of a number of officers especially selected on account of their fitness for the duty.
    In Japan a commission composed of one captain, one officer electrician (ranking with lieutenant-commander), two lieutenants, and two mechanical engineers has the matter in charge. The Japanese experimental stations are at Tokyo and Yokosuka; in addition, there are masts for wireless apparatus at all navy-yards. This commission seems particularly well adapted for the duty, including representatives from the seaman, electrical, and engineering branches. It is probable that some of the members are practically on permanent detail.
    There is no navy, so far as the Bureau is aware, which has not given especial attention to this subject.
    At the time that Commander Barber was detailed for duty in Europe, already mentioned, Lieut. A. M. Beecher, U. S. Navy; was selected by the Department for investigation of the subject in this country. Owing to his numerous duties in this Bureau he can not give the subject very much attention, and his efforts are chiefly confined to attending to the correspondence of the Bureau on this particular branch. Lieut. J. M. Hudgins, U. S. Navy, is devoting most of his time to this duty, although attached to the Bureau for other work. These three officers are all who have thus far made a study of wireless telegraphy and, in the opinion of the Bureau, are insufficient.
    In view of the great importance of wireless telegraphy as a means of communication between ships at sea and between ships and shore stations, and in consideration of the greatly increased value of such communication in time of war, the attention of the Department is invited to certain facts in connection with this subject, which, in the opinion of the Bureau, require action on the part of the Government.
    It appears to be well established that the operation of any wireless transmitting apparatus will affect any wireless receiving apparatus within a certain distance, which distance may be considered as its radius of influence. As a direct consequence thereof the signals which may be sent by other wireless transmitters within this radius of influence will be more or less obscured at all receiving stations within the same circuit; in other words, when the transmission of wireless messages is attempted by two or more operating stations at the same time, their interference will probably prevent the reception of a legible message at any receiving station. It is claimed by certain inventors that this interference can be overcome, but these claims do not appear to be substantiated, and it is therefore possible at present for any operator controlling a powerful transmitting apparatus to prevent the reception of a message within its radius of influence.
    In consideration of these facts it therefore becomes important, in the opinion of the Bureau, that all wireless transmitting and receiving stations should be brought under the control of the Government. It also appears important that this should be done before the vested interests in connection therewith have become too great. The Bureau has especially in mind a large wireless station recently established by a foreign company on Cape Cod.
    The Bureau is officially informed that foreign governments are exercising careful supervision over the location of wireless stations within their respective territorial limits with a view of having at all times absolute control thereof. In time of war the Department will undoubtedly find it necessary to communicate by means of wireless telegraphy with certain receiving stations along the coast. Nothing should be permitted to interfere with the transmission of such messages, nor should it be possible for unauthorized persons to receive them.
    The only practical method of insuring this result is to secure Government control over all wireless-telegraph stations along the coast. It is suggested that legislation to this end be requested.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1903.

Report of R. B. Bradford, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, September 17, 1903:
Pages 306-324:
SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVY-YARD,  NEW  YORK.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903:
    Wireless telegraph stations at navy-yard and Navesink Highlands, N. J.: $1,992.47 (Labor); $1,492.87 (Material); $3,485.34 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The wireless telegraph station at the Navesink Highlands has been completed in readiness for the supply of power and the installation of the wireless telegraph apparatus.

NAVY-YARD,  WASHINGTON,  D. C.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903:
    Wireless telegraph station: $584.12 (Labor); $119.12 (Material); $703.24 (Total).

REPAIRS  TO  SHIPS  AND  SHIP  EQUIPMENT.

    A wireless telegraph station has been established at this navy-yard, but is not at present in use, the instruments having been transferred to the Prairie for experimental purposes.

NAVY-YARD,  NORFOLK,  VA.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    Two sets of spars were completely fitted and shipped for use of the wireless telegraph stations at Key West and Dry Tortugas, and two sets are now about completed for use at this navy-yard and the station at Cape Henry. The contract work of the buildings, etc., at Cape Henry is about two-tenths completed.

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903:
    Erection of and fittings for wireless telegraph masts, Key West and Dry Tortugas: $721.73 (Labor); $4,433.55 (Material); $5,155.28 (Total).

Page 373-375:
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The Bureau refers to its last annual report for a full description of the policy adopted in connection with the use of wireless telegraphy in the Navy.
    At the request of the Bureau a board of five naval officers was appointed by the Department in August, 1902, for the purpose of conducting tests of various types of wireless telegraph apparatus. In general, the instructions of the Bureau to the board required a test of a duplicate sets of the same maker under the following conditions, viz:
    (1) Between two shore stations, Washington and Annapolis, 30 miles apart, were selected for these tests.
    (2) Between Annapolis and a moving ship in Chesapeake Bay.
    (3) Between two ships at sea, and at a considerable distance from the land.
    For these trials duplicate sets were purchased from Messrs. Ducretet and Rochefort, of Paris; Braun-Siemens-Halske and Slaby-Arco, of Berlin; Lodge-Muirhead, of London; and De Forest of the United States.
    The work of the board was much hampered by the fact that all members had additional duties to perform. The board was also greatly delayed in obtaining suitable ships to carry on the trials required at sea. Tests of the Lodge-Muirhead apparatus between Washington and Annapolis are still to be made. Tests for interference for all sets are also yet to be made.
    The report of the board was received by the Bureau September 28, conditions of the tests above outlined, the Slaby-Arco apparatus is superior to the other systems.
    On March 27, 1903, after consultation with the president of the wireless board, the Bureau ordered 20 sets of wireless telegraph apparatus of the Slaby-Arco pattern, the Department being desirous of testing this system of transmitting signals during the summer maneuvers. Only a part of the sets ordered were delivered in time to be installed on shipboard and at shore stations previous to the commencement of the maneuvers.
    The following ships were fully equipped with apparatus and operators: Baltimore, Olympia, Texas, Kearsarge, Prairie, Topeka, Illinois.
    The following shore stations were equipped in the same manner: Cape Elizabeth, Me.; Navy-yard, New York; Newport, R. I.; Highlands of Navesink, N. J.; Montauk Point, N. Y.
    The locality of the ships assimilating an enemy's squadron on the coast of Maine, was transmitted by means of wireless telegraphy on board the Olympia, when acting as scout, to the commander in chief on board the Kearsarge, in time to enable him to defeat the attack made, under the rules of the maneuvers. In general, the use of the apparatus during the summer drills was successful, and the commander in chief has recommended that all large ships of the Navy be equipped with wireless telegraph appliances without delay.
    The balance of the Slaby-Arco sets on hand will be installed on the U. S. S. Maine and Minneapolis, and at the following shore stations, viz: Navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H.; Cape Henry, Va.; Navy-yard Boston, Mass.; Key West, Fla.; Thatchers Island, Cape Ann, Mass.; Dry Tortugas, Fla.; Highland Light, Cape Cod, Mass.; Pensacola, Fla.
    On September 10, 1903, acting under instructions from the Department, the Bureau ordered 25 additional sets of Slaby-Arco apparatus. These will be installed on ships of the fleet, at stations on the Pacific coast, at naval stations on islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the Philippines, and in the West Indies, as soon as received.
    Commander F. M. Barber, U. S. Navy (retired), has continued on duty under the Bureau during the year, and supplies information concerning the improvements and developments of this method of signaling, which is fast assuming large and important proportions.

BERLIN  WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  CONFERENCE.

    A preliminary international wireless telegraph conference met at Berlin, August 4, 1903, and adjourned August 13, 1903. Forty-four members were present, representing Germany, Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria, Italy, Spain, Hungary, and the United States. The American delegates were Brig. Gen. A W. Greely, U. S. Army, Commander F. M. Barber, U. S. Navy (retired), and Mr. John J. Waterbury, of the Department of Labor and Commerce. All the countries represented except the United States, exercise governmental control over all cable and telegraph lines.
    A protocol was prepared by the conference, which the delegates from Germany, France, Russia, Austria, Spain, Hungary, and the United States agreed to submit to their respective Governments, with recommendation that it be made the basis of an international convention.
    While the delegates from Great Britain and Italy did not concur in the protocol they agreed to submit it to their respective Governments for consideration.
    A summary of the protocol is as follows:
    Article 1 concerns exchange of messages between vessels at sea and commercial coast stations under the following headings:
    First. Defines coast station.
    Second. Coast stations must receive from or forward to vessels at sea all wireless telegrams, irrespective of the system of wireless telegraph employed.
    Third. Technical information likely to facilitate communication between vessels and coast stations must be made public.
    Fourth. Fixes tariff for messages.
    Article II provides that an international convention shall establish rules regulating exchange of communication between ships and shore stations.
    Article III extends provisions of the St. Petersburg telegraphic convention to wireless telegraphy.
    Article IV gives preference to signals of distress.
    Article V provides that all wireless telegraph stations shall be used in such a manner as to interfere as little as possible with other stations.
    Article VI reserves to any contracting governments the right to enforce obedience by commercial stations in the respective countries to any regulation laid down by international convention.
    Article VII relieves government stations from all regulations except Articles IV and V.
    Article VIII provides for admission, on request, of other countries.
    Your attention is respectfully invited to the statements in the last annual report of the Bureau in reference to the necessity of additional officers for duty in connection with wireless telegraphy and the practice of foreign navies in this respect.

Report of H. C. Taylor, Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, October 1, 1903:
Page 483:

INSTRUCTION  OF  ELECTRICIANS  IN  WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    There are at present about 13 electricians detailed for instruction in wireless telegraphy. This school it is hoped will enable the Bureau to furnish as the service demands properly qualified persons to operate the instruments, which will be supplied to cruising vessels. Recruiting officers are now enlisting electricians to operate the instruments recently purchased by the Bureau of Equipment and it is expected that in time a class of 75 men will be under instruction. The Prairie and Topeka have been engaged in this instruction in connection with instruments mounted on shore.

Report of F. F. Flectcher, Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. Navy, Inspector of Ordnance in Charge, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island, Bureau of Ordnance, August 29, 1903:
Pages 758-759:
ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  THE  INSPECTOR  IN  CHARGE  OF  THE  NAVAL  TORPEDO  STATION,  NEWPORT,  R.  I.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH.

    A wireless telegraph mast, 180 feet high, was erected in October, 1902, and a suitable house fitted up for the installation of the necessary instruments. The top-gallant mast of this mast was broken during a gale in December but has since been replaced by another of more suitable design. This wireless telegraph station is now sufficiently equipped to send or receive messages at moderate ranges and is being utilized by the Bureau of Equipment for the purpose of instruction.
    A similar wireless telegraph station was erected at Montauk Point and is being used in connection with the one here. Owing to the inaccessibility of Montauk Point from this place the care of the station there has been turned over to the equipment officer of the New York Navy-Yard.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1904.

Report of Paul Morton, Secretary of the Navy, Washington, D. C., November 23, 1904:
Pages 17-18:

TIME  SIGNALS.

    Appreciable progress in the accuracy of the daily noon-time signals sent out by the Naval Observatory has been made. By these signals time balls are dropped in this city, at Boston, Newport, Woods Hole, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Fortress Monroe, Savannah, New Orleans, and Habana, Cuba. Offices of the telegraph and telephone companies throughout the United States receive the same signal, and all railways east of the Rocky Mountains are thus furnished with correct time.
    The whole operation is automatic, except the preliminary opening and closing of circuits. Five minutes before 12 o'clock, Washington time, business is suspended on the wires of the telegraph companies, and electrical connection with the standard Observatory clock is made. Each second as recorded by the Observatory clock is automatically telegraphed, and can be heard upon sounders in telegraph and telephone stations from Maine to Texas. The final noon signal is marked by a contact one second long, and this drops the time balls and corrects the clocks automatically.
    The transmitting clock that sends out the signals is corrected very accurately, shortly before noon, from the mean of three standard clocks, and on every clear night these clocks are themselves verified by observations of the meridian transit of stars. The average noon-signal error for the entire year was fourteen-hundredths of a second, but during the last six months it has been reduced to about six-hundredths of a second. The error is caused in part by the lack of absolute mechanical perfection in the clocks; by changes in temperature, the effect of which can not be wholly eliminated, but chiefly by variations in the density of the atmosphere.
    It is proposed to extend the noon-time signals by means of wireless telegraphy so as to distribute them over water as well as land, in order that ships at sea in proximity to our coasts may receive the correct time from the standard Observatory clock. By this means navigating officers whose vessels are anywhere within the radius of communication of a coast wireless-telegraph station, may verify and correct their ship's time and thus avoid all dangers due to variation of chronometers at sea.
    Aside from their ordinary business and commercial utilities, the Observatory noon signals are of service in connection with the telegraphic determination of longitude. It is occasionally discovered that lines of seacoast, islands, reefs, and rocks are not in fact in the positions in which they are marked on the charts. Sometimes they are several miles out of the way. Wherever a vessel carrying a wireless equipment can receive time signals, longitude can be determined with accuracy and the maps and charts in use can be verified and corrected accordingly.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The work of installing wireless-telegraph stations on shore and on ships has continued during the year. By permanent stations established at Cape Elizabeth, Me.; Portsmouth, N. H.; Cape Ann, Boston, and Cape Cod, Mass.; by lightships on Nantucket Shoal; by stations at Montauk Point, L. I.; the navy-yard, New York; the Highlands of Navesink, N. J.; Annapolis, Md.; Washington, D. C.; Norfolk and Cape Henry, Va., and Key West, Dry Tortugas, and Pensacola, Fla., a chain of communication between our Atlantic and Gulf coasts and vessels at sea will be established.
    The stations at Pensacola and Key West are to be equipped with long-distance apparatus, and the contract for their installment provides for a maximum range of communication of about 1,000 miles, so as to include Porto Rico, Guantanamo Bay, and the Panama Canal Zone. Stations have also been established at Mare Island and Yerba Buena Island, Cal., and at the Farallon Islands, of the Golden Gate, Cal.; also at Honolulu and Guam, and at Cavite and Cabras Island, P. I. In view of its uses in the national defense, wireless telegraphy should remain under public control; but this power should be exercised as not to interfere more than is necessary with private interests.

Report of H. N. Manney, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1904:
Pages 322-348:
SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVY-YARD,  PORTSMOUTH,  N. H.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904:
    Wireless telegraph stations at navy-yard, Cape Elizabeth, Maine, and Cape Ann, Massachusetts: $2,273.52 (Labor); $1,398.54 (Material); $3,672.06 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The wireless telegraph stations established under the jurisdiction of this navy-yard will be subsequently described under the heading of "Wireless telegraphy."

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904:
    Wireless telegraph stations: $240.29 (Labor); $3,914.99 (Material); $4,155.28 (Total).

FACILITIES  FOR  EQUIPMENT  WORK.

    The status of the coaling plant and wireless-telegraph station are subsequently described under the headings of "Coal depots" and "Wireless telegraphy."

NAVY-YARD,  PENSACOLA,  FLA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904:
    Chattels, furniture, and fittings, wireless telegraph instuments, etc.: $375.37 (Labor); $10,613.83 (Material); $10,989.20 (Total).
    Erecting wireless-telegraph mast: $1,973.08 (Labor); $1,407.68 (Material); $3,380.76 (Total).

NAVY-YARD,  MARE  ISLAND,  CAL.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904:
    Chattels, furniture, and fittings, including erection of coal bins, wireless telegraph installation, and fitting out Kiska Island expedition: $10,914.61 (Labor); $18,117.02 (Material); $29,031.63 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The sum of $1,546.81 has been expended for maintenance of wireless telegraph stations at Mare Island and Yerba Buena; a portable house for living quarters for operators has been purchased for the former station, at a cost of $300.
    Three masts, with rigging complete, at a total cost of $3,981.74, were manufactured for the wireless telegraph stations at Honolulu, Guam, and Cavite, and shipped by the Solace. Three additional masts are also in course of construction.

NAVAL  STATION,  CAVITE,  P. I.

    [E]xpenditures at this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904:
    Wireless telegraphy: $338.72 (Labor); $1,588.67 (Material); $1,927.39 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    During the year the Bureau has shipped to this station 10 sets of wireless telegraph instruments for issue to ships on the station and for installation at Cavite and Cabra Island.

Pages 380-382:
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The work of installing wireless telegraph stations on shore and on ships has continued during the year, until a total of 58 have been established, as follows:

SHORE  STATIONS.

          Cape Elizabeth, Me.     Navy-yard, New York.Key West, Fla.
          Portsmouth, N. H.Highlands of Navesink, N. J.     Dry Tortugas, Fla.
          Cape Ann, Mass.Annapolis, Md.San Juan, P. R.
          Boston, Mass.Washington, D. C.Culebra, W. I.
          Cape Cod, Mass.Norfolk, Va.Mare Island, Cal.
          Montauk Point, L. I.Cape Henry, Va.Yerba Buena Island, Cal.

SHIPS  INSTALLED.

          Alabama.Detroit.Massachusetts.     Olympia.
          Atlanta.Dixie.Mayflower.Prairie.
          Baltimore.Iowa.Minneapolis.Solace.
          Boston.Illinois.Missouri.Texas.
          Brooklyn.Kearsarge.     Newark.Topeka.
          Columbia.     Maine.New York.Yankee.

    In addition to the above, contract has been made for the installation of two light-ships, which relieve each other on Nantucket shoal, and the work of installation is under way. It is intended to communicate from the light-ship on her station directly to the torpedo station, Newport, R. I.
    Material has been assembled at Mare Island for the equipment of a station at the Farallon Islands, off the Golden Gate, California.
    The wireless-telegraph apparatus for establishing stations at Cavite, P. I., and Cabra Island, P. I., has been forwarded, and it is probable that the former station is now in operation.
    Masts have been forwarded to Honolulu and Guam for the establishment of stations.
    A contract has been entered into providing for the conversion of the stations at Pensacola and Key West into long-distance stations. The same contract also provides for the establishment of long-distance stations with a maximum range of communication of about 1,000 miles at the following places, viz: Porto Rico, the naval reservation in Guantanamo Bay, and the Panama Canal Zone. The Bureau, however, has the option of designating other locations if it is considered advisable
    The following ships on the Asiatic Station have been supplied with wireless-telegraph apparatus:

          Cincinnati.Rainbow.   Wisconsin.
          New Orleans.     Raleigh.San Francisco.
          Oregon.

    Arrangements have been made to equip the Indiana, Chicago, and Kentucky, the latter to have two stations for experimental purposes.
    The following is a list of ships which it is proposed to equip at an early date, or when commissioned. To this list the Bureau believes it may be advisable to add colliers, torpedo-boat destroyers, and torpedo boats.

          Albany.Dolphin.Milwaukee.Ranger.
          Alert.Don Juan de Austria.     Minnesota.Relief.
          Annapolis.Dubuque.Mississippi.Rhode Island.
          Amphitrite.Florida.Monadnock.St. Louis.
          Arkansas.Galveston.Monterey.South Dakota.
          Bennington.General Alava.Montgomery.Tacoma.
          Buffalo.Georgia.Nashville.Tennessee.
          California.Helena.Nebraska.Terror.
          Castine.Isla de Cuba.Nevada.Vicksburg.
          Charleston.Isla de Luzon.New Jersey.Virginia.
          Chattanooga.     Kansas.Newport.Washington.
          Cleveland.Louisiana.Ohio.West Virginia.
          Colorado.Machias.Paducah.Wheeling.
          Concord.Marblehead.Panther.Wilmington.
          Connecticut.Marietta.Pennsylvania.     
          Denver.Maryland.Princeton.
          Des Moines.Miantonomoh.Puritan.

    The following is a list of shore stations proposed for installation as the requirements of the Navy and the merchant service warrant their construction:

          Frenchman Bay, Me., or
              vicinity.
Cape Lookout.Tampa.
Cape Fear.Cedar Keys.
          Absecon Inlet, N. J.Cape Romaine.Cape San Blas.
          Cape Henlopen.Charleston, S. C.     Mobile Bay.
          Assateague Inlet.Savannah River.Mouths of the Mississippi
    River.
          Between Currituck Beach     
              light and Bodie Island
              light.
Cape Canavaral.
Cape Florida.New Orleans.
Alligator Reef.Raccoon Point, La.
          Cape Hatteras.Boca Grande.Sabine Pass.
          Galveston, Tex.Columbia River.Point Piedras.
          Mouth Rio Grande River.Cape Flattery.Capones.
          Bahia Honda.Port Townsend.Olongapo.
          San Diego.Bremerton.San Bernardino Straits.
          San Pedro.Sitka.Point Suban.
          Point Conception.Dutch Harbor.Point Cebu.
          Point Sur.Kiska Island.Point Tabunan.
          Point Arena.Midway Islands.Iloilo.
          Cape Mendocino.Tutuila.Surigao Straits.
          Cape Blanco.Cape Bojeador.Basilan Straits.

    During the summer the wireless telegraph board has conducted tests of various systems between the navy-yard, New York, and the Highlands of Navesink, and between the latter and a ship at sea. The Bureau has awaited the results of this test before purchasing a large supply of apparatus, in order that it may be thoroughly conversant with the latest improvements.
    The Bureau has, however, purchased three sets of wireless-telegraph apparatus from one of the leading manufacturing companies for installation in the Newport-Nantucket Shoal light-ship, provided the apparatus now installed proves unsuccessful on trial. In case the latter is satisfactory the three sets are to be installed at Cape Cod, Montauk Point, and the Highlands of Navesink. The contract guarantees a chain of communication from Cape Elizabeth, Maine, to Cape Cod, thence to Montauk Point, and thence to the Highlands of Navesink, without going through intermediate stations. The Bureau hopes soon to add one or two additional stations and bring the chain of communication to Washington; also to connect that city in a similar manner with the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, Porto Rico, Cuba, and the Panama Canal.
    It is proposed to shortly establish a time-signal system by wireless telegraphy in connection with the Naval Observatory, and a wireless telegraph storm-warning signal service in connection with the Weather Bureau of the Department of Agriculture.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1905.

Report of H. N. Manney, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1905:
Pages 271-293:
SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905:
    Wireless telegraph stations: $3,799.43 (Labor); $3,249.34 (Material); $7,048.77 (Total).

NAVY-YARD,  PENSACOLA,  FLA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905:
    Maintenance of wireless station: $460.82 (Labor); $435.38 (Material); $896.20 (Total);
    Accessories for wireless station: $1,816.48 (Labor); $4,518.14 (Material); $6,334.62 (Total).

NAVAL  STATION,  NEW  ORLEANS,  LA.

    The only work done during the year at this naval station, under cognizance of the Bureau of Equipment, has been the partial construction of a wireless-telegraph station.
    There are at present no facilities for general equipment use.

NAVAL  STATION,  CAVITE,  P.  I.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905:
    Wireless telegraph: $2,263.50 (Labor); $6,806.30 (Labor); $9,069.80 (Total);

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH.

    The wireless shore station has sent 206 messages and received from the signal corps 719 messages. Ten sets have been installed, nine of which are on board vessels of war, one on shore at Cavite.

NAVAL  STATION,  SAN  JUAN,  P. R.

    A long-distance wireless telegraph station is being constructed. One of less range keeps the station in regular communication with Culebra.

NAVAL  STATION,  CULEBRA,  P. R.

    The wireless-telegraph station has been in successful operation throughout the entire year without accident or hindrance, and proves of inestimable value for communication with San Juan, to the fleet in Target Bay, and also for transmitting messages from vessels which may be temporarily in the vicinity of St. Thomas.

NAVAL  STATION,  GUANTANAMO,  P. R.

    A long-distance wireless telegraph is in course of construction.

Pages 319-320:

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The interdepartmental board, appointed by the President to consider the entire question of wireless telegraphy in the service of the National Government, recommended:

*          *          *          *          *          *          *
    That the necessary steps be taken that the Navy Department may equip and install a complete coastwise wireless telegraph system covering the entire coasts of the United States, its insular possessions, and the Canal Zone in Panama.
*          *          *          *          *          *          *
    That the wireless stations of the Navy Department shall, without charge to the Agricultural Department, receive and promptly transmit to the ocean or to islands, or to other places where the information can be made useful, the storm warnings of the Weather Bureau.
*          *          *          *          *          *          *
    That the Navy Department shall request all vessels having the use of its wireless stations for the receipt of messages, to take daily meteorological observations of the weather when within communicating range and to transmit such observations to the Weather Bureau, through naval wireless stations, at least once daily, and transmit observations oftener when there is a marked change in the barometer; and that there shall be no charge against the Agricultural Department for these observations, or for the transmission thereof.
*          *          *          *          *          *          *
    That as fast as the naval wireless telegraph stations are put in operation the Navy Department be directed to receive and transmit through these stations, free of charge, all wireless messages to or from ships at sea, provided such stations do not come in competition with commercial stations, until such time as Congress may enact the necessary legislation governing this subject.

    These recommendations were approved by the President on July 29, 1904, and he directed that they be put into effect.
    The status of the naval wireless telegraphy at the close of the fiscal year is as follows:
          Vessels equipped with wireless telegraph sets:  44
          Vessels being equipped:4
          Shore stations equipped:23
          Shore stations building:13

    The restriction of the Bureau in its choice of sites for shore stations to land already possessed by the Government acts as a bar to the most efficient distribution of the stations. The Bureau will endeavor to provide against this condition when appropriations are submitted.
    Larger stations at Pensacola, Key West, and San Juan, and new stations at Guantanamo and Colon have been built for intercommunication between those points, but are not yet completed.
    The stations at Cape Henlopen, Del.; Pivers Island, Beaufort, N. C.; Charleston, S. C.; St. Augustine, Fla.; Jupiter Inlet, Fla., and New Orleans, La., are nearing completion.
    The establishment of eight stations on the Pacific coast of the United States is being undertaken.
    Wireless apparatus has been installed on board Nantucket Shoals Lightships Nos. 58 and 66; Diamond Shoals Lightships Nos. 71 and 72, off Cape Hatteras, and Charleston Lightship No. 34.
    The shore stations at Portsmouth, N. H., Boston, Mass., New York, N. Y., Washington, D. C., Norfolk, Va., Key West, Fla., and Mare Island, Cal., send out noon-time signals by wireless telegraphy for use in comparing chronometers. Other stations will soon take up the same work.
    The transmission and display of storm warnings in accordance with the interdepartmental board's recommendation is accomplished.
    Merchant vessels equipped with wireless telegraphy have been requested through the Hydrographic Office, and naval vessels directed by the Bureau of Navigation when at sea, to furnish meteorological data by wireless telegraphy for the use of the Weather Bureau in making forecasts.
    Rules governing communication with private vessels have been prepared and published in Notice to Mariners, in accordance with the recommendation of the interdepartmental board.
    The following additional vessels have been equipped during the year with wireless outfits:
          Chicago.Colorado.Dolphin.Tacoma.
          Kentucky.Denver.Galveston.     West Virginia.
          Chattanooga.     Des Moines.     Maryland.Whipple.
          Cleveland.

    Comparative tests of apparatus furnished by a number of wireless telegraph companies have been made, particular attention being given to methods of secrecy in sending, and prevention of interference with messages being sent; also to ascertaining the relative values of the various systems. In these tests the instruments were installed and operated by the representatives of the respective companies. All the principal wireless telegraph companies at home and abroad, except the Marconi Company, entered the competition. That company offered to compete, but for some unknown reason afterwards withdrew.
    Further experiments were made in the North Atlantic Fleet for the purpose of obtaining information regarding "tuning," reception of messages during gunfire, reliable communicating distance between ships, speed of relayed messages, effect of atmospheric disturbance, etc.
    The Continental Morse Code is now used for official communication between ships and stations in place of the wig-wag code which has been in use for six months and found to be less rapid than the Continental and to bar the development of expert operators in any code. Experts in two codes are rare; to become expert in three is practically impossible for the great majority of operators.
    All operators at naval wireless telegraph stations are of the enlisted force of the Navy. They are efficient and trustworthy.

Report of Brigadier-General G. F. Elliott, Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, September 15, 1905:
Pages 1235-1236:
REPORT  OF  THE  COMMANDANT  OF  UNITED  STATES  MARINE  CORPS.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION,  ISTHMIAN  CANAL  ZONE.

    In accordance with a request from the chief of the Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department, under date of November 3, 1904, Maj. John A. Lejeune, U. S. Marine Corps, commanding marine battalion, Camp Elliott, Isthmian Canal Zone, Panama, was directed to act as the representative of the Bureau of Equipment to assist in selecting the site for and superintending construction of the wireless telegraph station on the Isthmus of Panama. Upon being relieved by Lieutenant-Colonel Wood in December, 1904, Major Lejeune turned over to that officer the supervision of this wireless telegraph construction. The construction work has now been completed to the satisfaction of the Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, and it is a pleasure to bring to the attention of the Department this character of work on the part of officers of the corps.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Year 1906.

Report of Wm. S. Cowles, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1906:
Pages 271-293:
SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVY-YARD,  PORTSMOUTH,  N.  H.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraph stations at navy-yard, Cape Elizabeth, and Cape Ann: $293.15 (Labor); $13.15 (Material); $306.30 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The station at Cape Ann was dismantled in December and turned over to the Light-House Board. The stations at Cape Elizabeth and the navy-yard are both in working order, although the former has not yet received the official test.

NAVY-YARD,  BOSTON,  MASS.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The work of the wireless stations at Cape Cod and this navy-yard has been highly satisfactory. Time signals are sent out daily and weather reports, etc., transmitted to ships at sea. The station at the yard is small, and a larger building is considered desirable.

NAVY-YARD,  BROOKLYN,  N.  Y.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraph stations: $2,444.80 (Labor); $198.83 (Material); $2,643.63 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless station at this navy-yard has been in satisfactory operation during the year, with practically no breakdown, and has greatly facilitated communication with ships anchored in the North River off Tompkinsville or approaching the harbor. Plans are under way for an increase in capacity in order to establish direct and uninterrupted communication with Washington, D. C.
    The stations at Montauk Point and the highlands of Navesink, N. J., however, have not proved satisfactory, and the Bureau has decided to abandon them and equip a 5-kilowatt station at Fire Island. This it is believed will maintain uninterrupted communication along the coast from Cape Henlopen to Newport and also with the station at this yard.
    Long-distance communication has been so good at the latter station that messages have been received from the southern high-powered stations and sent and received from Boston and Washington. Ships have also been communicated with at varying distances up to 1,000 miles.
    All material and wireless outfits for newly constructed ships have been tested at this yard, and all ships have had their outfits overhauled upon arrival and necessary repairs and adjustments made.

NAVY-YARD,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraph station: $3,469.04 (Labor); $10,289.66 (Material); $13,758.70 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The experimental station established at this yard was abandoned on January 30, 1906, and all instruments, apparatus, etc., transferred to the new station on the water front, which is now in satisfactory operation. Daily communication is held with Cape Henlopen, and signals have been heard from Quebec, Canada, and San Juan, P. R.

NAVY-YARD,  NORFOLK,  VA.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless telegraph stations at Cape Henry, Pivers Island, light-ships 71 and 72, and this navy-yard have been in operation during the year, but their usefulness has been somewhat hampered by lack of operators. In order to maintain them at the proper state of efficiency the quota assigned them should be filled at all times.
    A total of 7,531 messages have been received and set by these stations; the greatest distance of transmission, 1,100 miles.

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Maintenance wireless telegraph stations: $5,697.30 (Labor); $2,718.85 (Material); $8,416.15 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The wireless stations at Key West and Dry Tortugas have been in operation during the year.
    The station at Key West was designed for long-distance transmission and messages have been exchanged with Guantanamo, San Juan, Colon, Panama, and Pensacola, but as yet absolutely reliable communication has not been established. It is believed, however, that the use of a flat-top aerial will give satisfactory results, and experiments with this end in view are now in progress.
    The present location of the plant has proved undesirable and a new operating house has been designed. It is hoped it will be completed and the apparatus installed therein before the coming winter.
    The station at Dry Tortugas has operated satisfactorily and experiments indicate the probability of greater range of transmission than originally contemplated. Messages have been read from New York, Colon, and other remarkable distances.

NAVY-YARD,  PENSACOLA,  FLA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Maintenance of wireless station: $896.48 (Labor); $618.89 (Material); $1,515.37 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This long-distance wireless station has been completed and accepted. Communication has been maintained with Key West and New Orleans, also with San Juan, P. R., and other long-distance stations. A great deal of experimental work has been done, as this station is well suited to such purposes.

NAVY-YARD,  MARE  ISLAND,  CALIF.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Maintenance of wireless stations: $8,753.95 (Labor); $24,986.90 (Material); $33,740.85 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The stations at Point Loma, the Farallones, Yerba Buena, Point Arguello, and the navy-yard have been in satisfactory operation during the year, and the sum of $2,824.88 has been expended for their maintenance.

ELECTRICAL  SCHOOL.

    The electrical school has been in successful operation during the year, and a total of 45 men have received instruction. Of this number 18 have completed the course, and but 2 failed under examination; 5 have dropped out for various reasons, and 20 are still in attendance.
    The number of men graduated has no more than filled the demand for electricians and wireless operators, and this demand will probably increase during the coming year owing to the new wireless stations and additional ships fitted with wireless outfits.
    The space allotted to the school is cramped and inadequate and provision should be made for better accommodations.

NAVY-YARD,  PUGET  SOUND,  WASH.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraph stations: $3,470.99 (Labor); $4,197.13 (Material); $7,668.12 (Total).

NAVAL  STATION,  CAVITE,  P.  I.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraphy: $575.91 (Labor); $2,458.23 (Material); $3,034.14 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    Few changes have been made in this connection during the past year, but the wireless station at Cavite has been enlarged and an increase in power is contemplated.
    Sites for six stations have been located in different parts of the islands, and the Philippine government has been requested to set aside the necessary land for the use of the Navy Department.
    There were 1,509 messages sent during the year and 1,361 received; 5,640 Signal Corps messages were also relayed through the Cavite station.

NAVAL  STATION,  SAN  JUAN,  P.  R.

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The long-distance wireless-telegraph station has been completed and is in satisfactory operation. Messages are exchanged with Key West, Guantanamo, and Colon.

NAVAL  STATION,  CULEBRA,  P.  R.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Clearing trocha to wireless station: $74.32 (Labor); --- (Material); $74.32 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The wireless telegraph station has continued in operation and proved of great value in communicating with the fleet and for the transmission of messages from vessels in the vicinity of St. Thomas. Messages emanating from Trinidad and Barbados have been easily read, and a daily weather report made to San Juan.

NAVAL  STATION,  GUANTANAMO,  CUBA.

    [E]xpenditures at this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1906:
    Wireless telegraph station: $900.00 (Labor); $8,234.53 (Material); $9,134.53 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The long-distance wireless telegraph station mentioned in last year's report has been completed and accepted, but, owing to tropical conditions, absolutely reliable communication with other large stations has not yet been assured. Improvements in the installation are about to be made, however, and it is hoped entirely successful results may then be obtained.

NAVAL  STATION,  HAWAII,  HAWAII.

    There is no work at present under cognizance of the Bureau of Equipment at this naval station, except in connection with the storage and handling of coal and the maintenance of the wireless telegraph station.
    The wireless telegraph station has been in satisfactory operation since October 1, the record for receiving and sending being 225 and 140 miles, respectively.

NAVAL  STATION,  ISLAND  OF  GUAM.

    The only work under the cognizance of the Bureau of Equipment during the year was the completion of the coal shed and the establishment of a wireless telegraph station.

Pages 384-386:
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    The progress made in wireless telegraphy during the past year has been very great, and the results achieved highly satisfactory.
    It is the policy of the Bureau to purchase different types of wireless apparatus from the various manufacturers in this country for installation in ships and shore stations, in order to encourage competition. It is believed that this method of procedure, together with the stimulus afforded by prospective commercial profits, has produced a development of the art in this country equal if not superior to that attained abroad.
    It appears, however, that the commercial possibilities of wireless telegraphy are not as great as originally anticipated, since the revenue derived therefrom is small and apparently not commensurate with the cost of installation and maintenance of coastwise long-distance stations.
    But the value of wireless telegraphy for the purpose of national defense is inestimable. It is therefore essential that absolutely reliable communication at the longest possible distances be maintained between naval ships at sea, between ships and shore stations, and between the shore stations themselves along our coasts and outlying possessions.
    With this end in view a complete chain of stations has been established along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, in the West Indies, and on the Isthmus of Panama, and a chain is being completed on the Pacific coast from Tatoosh Island to Cape Flattery. Stations have also been established in the Hawaiian Islands and at Guam, and preparations are under way to establish a complete chain of intercommunicable stations in the Philippine Islands.
    These coastwise stations are always ready to receive and transmit to their destination messages from ships at sea. The Department performs this service free of charge and has made arrangements with the telephone and telegraph companies in this country to forward such messages without prepayment.
    The Department's stations on the Pacific coast, acting in conjunction with naval vessels, were of especial value during the San Francisco disaster in April, 1906, furnishing for a considerable time the only reliable means of quick communication with the outside world.
    The following table shows a comparative statement of the vessels and shore stations in this country and abroad equipped or about to be equipped with wireless telegraph apparatus. From this it will be seen that, excluding the installations on foreign naval vessels (and it may he assumed that all ships of importance are so equipped), the United States has in operation more than half of all the wire installations in the world.
 United
States.
 Foreign. 
Shore stations (naval)39157
Shore stations (commercial and army)57
Vessels (naval)57---
Vessels (merchant)5681

    The Government is vitally interested in extending wireless communication to the greatest possible distance at sea and from all points along the coast line of the United States, and invites attention to the great importance of such communication in time of war.
    The International Conference on Wireless Telegraphy, which has been several times postponed, is scheduled to meet at Berlin on October 1, 1906. Rear-Admiral H. N. Manney, U. S. Navy (retired), will represent the Navy on that occasion, with Capt. F. M. Barber, U. S. Navy (retired), as technical secretary.
    The following is a brief statement of the status of the wireless telegraph work performed by the Bureau during the past year:
    The stations mentioned in the last annual report as under construction have been completed and are in successful operation, and the following additional stations have been erected: Point Arguello, Cal.; Point Loma, Cal.; navy-yard, Puget Sound; Honolulu, Hawaii; Island of Guam.
    Extensive changes in apparatus have been made at Cape Elizabeth, Cape Cod, Montauk Point, and the Highlands of Navesink, and new apparatus installed at the Portsmouth and Boston stations. Owing to the increased range of other stations in that vicinity the station at Cape Ann has been abandoned and the buildings turned over to the Light-House Board.
    Sites have been selected for a number of stations in the Philippine Islands and for an additional station in the Canal Zone, near Panama.
    The noon-time signal service is being extended to all Atlantic and Pacific coast stations, and connections are being made with local telegraph and telephone lines, especially those of the Life-Saving Service and the Weather Bureau.
    The following vessels, not previously fitted, have been equipped with wireless telegraph sets during the year:
          Brutus.Dubuque.Marietta.     
          Cæsar.Lawton.Paducah.     
          Charleston.Lebanon.     Supply.     
          Don Juan de Austria.     

    Comparative tests of receiving apparatus, furnished by different companies, were made during the Brooklyn's voyage to and from Cherbourg in July, 1905.
    Tests were also made at various times in the North Atlantic fleet to determine the ability to receive messages through interference and to ascertain the greatest interval it is practicable to maintain between vessels in reliable communicating distance from each other. This interval is found to be greater than last year.
    Tests made on Christmas showed the ability of the Washington station, at night, to relay messages to and receive them from any wireless telegraph station on the Atlantic coast or in the West Indies, and steps are being taken to put these stations in condition to make this communication at any time, day or night.
    All vessels of the Dry Dock Expedition, including the dock, were fitted with complete wireless telegraph sets, with provision for receiving by sound as well as on the Morse tape. This equipment was found very useful as a means of communication between the vessels of the expedition and the dock, as well as for communication with stations at a greater distance.
    Experiments relative to time usefulness of wireless telegraphy on submarines are in progress but have not been concluded. It is doubtful, however, if the use of wireless on submarines will be of value.
    Steps have been taken toward making the stations at the Washington and New York navy-yards directly intercommunicating, day and night for use as testing and experimental stations.
    The recommendations of the Interdepartmental Board on Wireless Telegraphy, put into effect by the President's order of July 29, 1904, and quoted in last year's report, are found to be well suited to the needs of wireless telegraphy, and no occasion for the modification of any of the recommendations has yet arisen.
    A "Manual of wireless telegraphy for the use of naval electricians," by Lieut. Commander S. S. Robison, U. S. Navy, has just been issued by the Bureau. Lieutenant-Commander Robison's knowledge of the subject, together with the interest aud ability he displayed in the work, rendered him especially well fitted for the preparation of this book, which will doubtless prove of great value to the Navy.
    This manual replaces "Instructions for the use of wireless telegraph apparatus," written by the late Lieut. J. M. Hudgins, U. S. Navy. Lieutenant Hudgins had made an exhaustive study of this art since its first application to maritime purposes and his recent death, while a great loss to the Navy generally, is especially felt in this branch of the service.
    A pamphlet giving a list of the wireless telegraph stations of the world has recently been published by the Bureau and will be found of interest in considering this subject.

Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1907.

Report of Wm. S. Cowles, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1907:
Pages 303-327:
The appropriations under the cognizance of the Bureau and its various branches for use during the fiscal year were as follows:

Naval act, approved June 29, 1906.

Naval wireless telegraph stations, Pacific coast: $65,000.

SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVY-YARD,  PORTSMOUTH,  N.  H.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless telegraph stations at yard and Cape Elizabeth: $97.20 (Labor); $8.88 (Material); $106.08 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The stations at Cape Elizabeth and the navy-yard in good order, and have been in continuous operation during the year.

NAVY-YARD,  BOSTON,  MASS.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The work of the stations at Cape Cod and this navy-yard has been highly satisfactory. Time signals are sent out daily, and weather reports, etc., transmitted to ships at sea. The station at the navy-yard is too small, and a larger building is considered very necessary.

NAVY-YARD,  BROOKLYN,  N.  Y.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless-telegraph stations: $10,838.51 (Labor); $9,416.31 (Material); $20,254.82 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The station at Navesink Highlands was discontinued on September 29, 1906, and that at Montauk Point on August 31, 1906. They have been replaced by a new station at Fire Island Beach, Long Island, supplied with an outfit of the most recent and approved type. This station has been in operation since May 7, 1907.
    The station at the navy-yard is being increased to 15 kilowatts, and the operating building has been replaced by a new one, and increased efficiency is expected therefrom during the coming year.

DRAWING  ROOM.

    About 829 drawings were accomplished by the drafting force, under the following headings: Standard drawings, miscellaneous working drawings, drawings and data for wireless telegraphy, diagrams of connections of motors, etc., wiring plans of ships, switch boards and panel boards, illumination plans, etc.

NAVY-YARD,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless-telegraph station: $251.05 (Labor); $3,310.14 (Material); $3,561.19 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    The wireless-telegraph station has continued in satisfactory operation and many interesting tests and experiments have been conducted during the past year. These experiments are of great value to the service, since they tend to promote the development of the art in its application to naval purposes.

NAVY-YARD,  NORFOLK,  VA.

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless-telegraph stations under cognizance of this navy-yard have been in successful operation during the year. The stations are five in number, viz., navy-yard, Norfolk; Cape Henry, Virginia; Piver's Island, Beaufort, N. C.; and Diamond Shoals Light-ships Nos. 71 and 72.
Total number of messages sent: 5,255
Total number of messages received: 4,281

NAVY-YARD,  CHARLESTON,  S.  C.

    The four wireless-telegraph stations under the cognizance of this navy-yard have, in the main, been satisfactory, and reports of their operations are submitted to the Bureau each week.

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless-telegraph stations: $8,810.86 (Labor); $1,248.84 (Material); $10,059.70 (Total).
    Erecting new wireless house: $499.21 (Labor); $1,063.79 (Material); $1,563.00 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The new operating house for the station at Key West was completed during the year and is now in use. Marked progress has been made in overcoming static, although long-distance messages can not be reliably transmitted during the summer months.
    The station at Dry Tortugas has been remarkably successful in sending and receiving messages, and has been in satisfactory operation throughout the year.

NAVY-YARD,  PENSACOLA,  FLA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Maintenance of wireless-telegraph station: $1,598.26 (Labor); $659.43 (Material); $2,257.69 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    This station has been in continuous operation during the year, and the results achieved in long-distance communication have, in general, been satisfactory.

NAVAL  STATION,  NEW  ORLEANS,  LA.

    The total expenditures for this naval station for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907, amounted to $4,940.66. Of this amount, $1,470.43 was expended for coal, $2,830.19 in connection with the wireless telegraph station, and the balance, $640.04, for the general maintenance of the station.

NAVY-YARD,  MARE  ISLAND,  CAL.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless telegraph installations at various stations: $8,395.64 (Labor); $16,190.93 (Material); $24,586.57 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The stations under cognizance of this navy-yard, viz, at Point Loma, Point Arguello, Mare Island Yard, Farallon Islands, Table Bluff, Cape Blanco, and North Head, have been in satisfactory operation during the year. The sum of $24,586.57 has been expended in their maintenance.

NAVY-YARD,  PUGET  SOUND,  WASH.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless telegraphy: $6,488.19 (Labor); $19,664.28 (Material); $26,152.47 (Total).

NAVAL  STATION,  CAVITE,  P.  I.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Wireless telegraphy: $1,082.00 (Labor); $2,020.20 (Material); $3,102.20 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This station has been in satisfactory operation during the year. There were 1,955 messages sent and 1,931 received; 500 messages for the Signal Corps, United States Army, were also relayed through the Cavite station. The longest distance of communication was 1,100 miles.

NAVAL  STATION,  SAN  JUAN,  P.  R.

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    With the exception of occasional short periods, necessitated by minor repairs, the wireless station has been in continuous service during the year, and the results achieved have in general proved satisfactory.

NAVAL  STATION,  CULEBRA,  P.  R.

    A wireless telegraph station is in successful operation.

NAVAL  STATION,  GUANTANAMO,  CUBA.

    [E]xpenditures at this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1907:
    Maintenance of wireless telegraph station: $2,658.27 (Labor); $5,321.07 (Material); $7,979.34 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This station has been in constant operation throughout the year and has, in general, been satisfactory. Tropical conditions, however, still continue to limit its sphere of usefulness as a station for the transmission of long-distance messages.

NAVAL  STATION,  HAWAII,  HAWAII.

    There is no work under the cognizance of the Bureau of Equipment at this naval station, except in connection with the storage and handling of coal and maintenance of the wireless telegraph station.
    The wireless telegraph station has continued in operation during the year, and the results achieved were in general satisfactory.

NAVAL  STATION,  ISLAND  OF  GUAM.

    There are no facilities for equipment work at this station, except in connection with the wireless telegraph station and shed for the storage of coal.

Pages 346-348
WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    Progress in wireless telegraphy continues to be marked, and the reliable radius of action both of shore and ship stations has been considerably increased. This has been effected not only by improvement in apparatus, but by a better and increasing practical working knowledge of the art.
    As pointed out in the last report, wireless telegraphy has become an essential element in the national defense, so that it is necessary to maintain an intercommunicable chain of stations on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and, as far as the state of the art permits, in the outlying possessions. Wireless is now considered an essential part of the equipment of every naval vessel. It is also of growing importance to the shipowner--to enable him to know the whereabouts of his vessels, to give him information whether or not all is well, and to give orders to his captains; to the navigator, that he may obtain knowledge of storms, of derelicts, to daily check his chronometers when within range of wireless stations, and to summon assistance when in distress; and, finally, to the general public when traveling upon the sea.
    All these are intimately connected with the public interest and the public good and raise grave questions of public policy, both domestic and international, which it is not pertinent to discuss in this report, but which in part involves the following questions: The limitations of the use of wireless in time of war; whether the Government coastwise stations shall be opened to the public; whether commercial stations shall be under Government control and to what extent, both with respect to Government stations and contiguous commercial stations. The Government stations are now open to the public for the reception of messages from and transmission to vessels at sea, the same being received from or put on land lines, telephone and telegraph, with which all stations are connected.
    The question of international communication was fully discussed by the Radio Telegraphic Convention which met in Berlin in October, 1906, and the result of this conference was the adoption of an agreement with a set of rules that seem to cover all the ground necessary for an efficient international working system. This convention has been duly forwarded, through the proper channels, to the Senate for ratification.
    The following is a brief statement of the wireless telegraph work accomplished by the Bureau during the past year:
    Experiments have been made with wireless direction finders, and these will be continued during the coining year. Arrangements have been made for testing wireless telephones for use in connection with the work of the fleet, though even if successful, as is expected, the wireless telephone will not replace the telegraph, but will rather be used in conjunction with it.
    Changes in apparatus have been made in many stations, both on shore and on board ship. The state of the art is such that constant attention must be paid to wireless apparatus in order to keep pace with current development and maintain the stations in the highest state of efficiency.
    The stations at the Highlands and Montauk Point have been abandoned as being not necessary for the maintenance of the coastwise chain, and in place thereof a new station has been erected at Fire Island, which is now in satisfactory operation.
    The chain on the Pacific coast has been completed by the erection of stations at Tatoosh Island, North Head, Cape Blanco, and Table Bluff, and a station is in process of erection at Sitka, Alaska, by which it is expected to maintain wireless communication between Alaska and the Pacific coast of the United States.
    Sites have been selected and set aside and plans prepared for six stations in the Philippine Islands, but their erection has been postponed, pending the development of a system that it is hoped will be especially adapted for wireless work in the Tropics.
    New apparatus has been installed at Washington and at New York, and it is expected shortly that the stations at those places will be intercommunicating, day and night.
    The following vessels have been equipped with wireless telegraph sets during the year. Some of these were not previously fitted, and in some apparatus that was out of date has been replaced.
 
          Albany.Milwaukee.St. Louis.
          California.Minnesota.Tennessee.
          Connecticut.Nebraska.Vermont.
          Don Juan De Austria.    New Jersey.Virginia.
          Georgia.Ohio.Washington.
          Kansas.Rhode Island.Whipple.
          Louisiana.South Dakota.          

    The Connecticut and Virginia have been equipped with wireless telephones for experimental purposes.
    As regards wireless communication and its possibilities, the following may be of interest: The wireless station at Point Loma, California, heard the U. S. S. Connecticut and the Pensacola station communicating with one another while the former was off the eastern coast of Cuba, and copied one of the messages. This is probably the longest distance ever made under such conditions.
    A new edition of List of Wireless Telegraph Stations of the World has been issued, bringing the pamphlet up to date, as far as it is possible to obtain the necessary information.
    The following table shows a comparative statement of the vessels and shore stations in this country and abroad equipped or about to be equipped with wireless-telegraph apparatus. From this it will be seen that, excluding the installations on foreign naval vessels (and it may be assumed that all ships of importance are so equipped) the United States has in operation more than half of all the wireless installations in the world.
 
 United
States.
 Foreign. 
Shore stations (naval)44203
Shore stations (commercial and army)66
Vessels (naval)73---
Vessels (merchant)12499

    The amount of work accomplished by the various Government stations is shown by the following table, giving the number of messages received and transmitted by each from July 1, 1906, to July 1, 1907:
 
Name.Messages
sent.
Messages
received.
Words
sent.
Words
received.
Cape Elizabeth, Me.481668922,935
Portsmouth, N. H.5318408,07812,922
Boston, Mass.3731,18314,16917,835
Cape Cod, Mass.2,6732,30456,18653,903
Newport, R. I.3972,7019,022 5,315
Fire Island, N. Y. a811591,334872
Navy-Yard, N. Y.8611,12122,20231,364
Cape Henlopen, Del.391155942,121
Annapolis, Md.48257311,43213,333
Washington, D. C.5259869,33514,577
Norfolk, Va.1,9232,17131,46333,224
Cape Henry, Va.1,4651,28922,14023,120
Light-Ship No. 71.2471143,0861,192
Light-Ship No. 72.5781696,5702,813
Beaufort, N. C.425379676,720
Charleston, S. C.1111962,4664,407
Light-Ship No. 34.735188930
St. Augustine, Fla.1221212,6022,571
Jupiter Inlet, Fla.532738452,902
Key West, Fla.9501,55018,92027,497
Dry Tortugas, Fla.1,2282,70329,278101,902
Pensacola, Fla.1101742,0542,677
New Orleans, La.5831,2551,4491,221
San Juan, P. R.5851,34313,36518,081
Culebra, P. R.67445811,6149,893
Guantanamo, Cuba.1,35970617,57714,132
Colon.2161402,1303,551
Puget Sound, Wash.2302375,7355,073
Tatoosh Island. a17619021,176
North Head. a1001012,2152,362
Cape Blanco. a2215421250
Table Bluff, Cal. a42191,060373
Mare Island, Cal.1,8982,33447,73575,687
Farallon Islands.1,8891,22145,33828,768
Yerba Buena Island.1,2651,83630,09442,190
Point Arguello, Cal.1,04097827,53319,962
Point Loma, Cal.1,0721,53220,52824,384
Honolulu.1627351600
Cavite, P. I.2,0252,01347,08134,247
Guam.4545176,9598,525
a Has only been in commission for a few months during the year.


Annual Reports of the Navy Department for the Fiscal Year 1908.

Report of Wm. S. Cowles, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, October 1, 1908:
Pages 278-292:

SUMMARY  OF  EQUIPMENT  WORK  AT  NAVY-YARDS  AND  NAVAL  STATIONS.

NAVY-YARD,  PORTSMOUTH,  N.  H.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Wireless telegraph stations at yard and Cape Elizabeth: $280.77 (Labor); $11.57 (Material); $292.34 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The station at this yard is in good order, and has been in continuous operation during the year. The Cape Elizabeth station has not been in continuous operation, owing to necessary repairs; the station is now in good order, however.

NAVY-YARD,  BOSTON,  MASS.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The work of the stations at Cape Cod and this navy-yard has been highly satisfactory. Time signals are sent out daily, Sundays and holidays excepted, and weather reports and advices transmitted to ships at sea.

NAVY-YARD,  BROOKLYN,  N.  Y.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Maintenance and additions to wireless stations, and wireless installations on ships: $4,936.81 (Labor); $7,060.16 (Material); $11,996.97 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The station at Fire Island Beach, Long Island, has been in practically continuous operation and has performed very satisfactory service. This station was inspected on January 28 and June 10, 1908, by the assistant equipment officer and the master electrician. One thousand eight hundred and ten messages were received and transmitted by this station during the year.
    The wireless station at the navy-yard was in the hands of contractors from April 21, 1907, to April 7, 1908, when it was reported ready for inspection. It failed to pass satisfactory test and has been rejected.
    The station has been used to a considerable extent in the practical operation of sets under inspection and has proved to be of considerable value in this connection.

NAVY-YARD,  PHILADELPHIA,  PA.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless station at Cape Henlopen, Lewes, Del., is giving results as per weekly reports.
    The station at the navy-yard has been completed and is giving results as per weekly reports.

NAVY-YARD,  WASHINGTON,  D.  C.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Wireless telegraph station: $314.82 (Labor); $2,654.35 (Material); $2,969.17 (Total).
    Wireless installations on Mayflower: $90.51 (Labor); --- (Material); $90.51 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    Various tests and experiments have been conducted at the wireless telegraph station.

NAVY-YARD,  NORFOLK,  VA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    New wireless tower: $2,352.74 (Labor); $566.83 (Material); $2,919.57 (Total).

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless telegraph stations under cognizance of this navy-yard have been in successful operation during the year. The stations are five in number, viz, navy-yard, Norfolk; Cape Henry, Virginia; Piver's Island, Beaufort, N. C.; and Diamond Shoals Light-ships Nos. 71 and 72.
Messages sent: 4,257
Message received: 4,754

NAVY-YARD,  CHARLESTON,  S.  C.

    The equipment building at this navy-yard has not yet been equiped for use. The work for this department has been performed by other yard departments and has consisted of various minor repairs to yard craft and wireless telegraph apparatus.

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The wireless telegraph stations have, in the main, been in satisfactory operation, and weekly and monthly reports of their operations have been submitted to the bureau.

NAVAL  STATION,  KEY  WEST,  FLA.,  AND  DRY  TORTUGAS.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Wireless-telegraph stations: $7,902.62 (Labor); $2,887.96 (Material); $10,790.58 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The station at this navy-yard has been in satisfactory operation, and considerable progress has been made in overcoming static, and especially in finding periods of the day in summer months, when static has the least influence.
    The wireless station at Tortugas, which has been kept in constant service, is the only means of communication with Key West.

NAVY-YARD,  PENSACOLA,  FLA.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Maintenance of wireless telegraph station: $603.32 (Labor); $313.14 (Material); $916.46 (Total).

NAVY-YARD,  MARE  ISLAND,  CAL.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Wireless telegraph installations at various stations: $2,703.58 (Labor); $2,874.35 (Material); $5,577.93 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATIONS.

    The stations under cognizance of this navy-yard have been in successful operation, viz, at Point Loma, Point Arguello, Farallon Islands, Mare Island, Table Bluff, Cape Blanco, North Head, and Sitka. The Sitka wireless station has been completed and temporary installation of wireless apparatus made pending the arrival of permanent instruments and machinery from the East.

NAVY-YARD,  PUGET  SOUND,  WASH.

    [E]xpenditures at this navy-yard during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Maintenance of wireless telegraph stations: $959.20 (Labor); $2,270.39 (Material); $3,229.59 (Total).

NAVAL  STATION,  CAVITE,  P.  I.

    [E]xpenditures for this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Wireless telegraphy: $217.03 (Labor); $744.86 (Material); $961.89 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This station has been in satisfactory operation during the year. In addition to the time ball, the time is now being sent out daily by wireless at 11 a. m., a connection being made with the time room in the equipment building. There were 1,991 messages sent and 2,722 received.

NAVAL  STATION,  SAN  JUAN,  P.  R.

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This station has been in satisfactory operation during the year. The station has been connected by telephone to the military exchange, giving two connections from the naval to the wireless station by telephone.

NAVAL  STATION,  CULEBRA,  P.  R.

    There are no facilities for equipment work at this station. A small stock of coal, sufficient to meet current needs, and a wireless-telegraph station is maintained.

NAVAL  STATION,  GUANTANAMO,  CUBA.

    [E]xpenditures at this naval station during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908:
    Maintenance of wireless-telegraph station: $1,649.44 (Labor); $4,264.39 (Material); $5,913.83 (Total).

WIRELESS-TELEGRAPH  STATION.

    This station has been in constant operation throughout the year. Several minor repairs have been made to same.

NAVAL  STATION,  HAWAII,  HAWAII.

    There are no facilities for work under the cognizance of the Bureau of Equipment at this station, except in connection with the storage and handling of coal and maintenance of the wireless-telegraph station.
    The increasing importance of the wireless telegraph plant calls for improvements in this station. Experiments should be undertaken with a view to obtaining the most suitable location for such a station, and then a more powerful plant should be established.

NAVAL  STATION,  ISLAND  OF  GUAM.

    There are no facilities for equipment work at this station. A small stock of coal is maintained to meet ordinary requirements, and a wireless telegraph station is efficiently maintained.

Page 313-314:

WIRELESS  TELEGRAPHY.

    During the past year marked progress has been made in wireless telegraphy.
    There have been developments in apparatus whereby many of the early difficulties and imperfections have been eliminated, resulting in great improvement both in range and accuracy of transmission of messages.
    The value of wireless in the national scheme of defense is becoming more and more apparent. The chain of intercommunicable stations now extends from Maine to New Orleans on the Atlantic coast and from San Diego to Alaska on the Pacific. There are also intercommunicable stations in the West Indies and stations at Hawaii, Guam, and Cavite in the Philippines. It is necessary to keep all these stations in a high state of efficiency.
    Recent developments in the art now warrant the establishment of high-powered, long-distance stations. The bureau contemplates in the near future the erection of such a station at Washington and eventually on the Pacific coast, at Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and the Philippines, so that the fleet will at all times be in direct communication with Washington wherever it may be--in the North Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean Sea, the North Pacific Ocean, the greater portion of the South Pacific Ocean, and part of the Indian Ocean. These stations are important, not only as an adjunct to the navy both in time of peace and in time of war, but they are also of great value to the merchant marine. The various coastwise wireless stations are utilized by the Hydrographic Office in collecting and disseminating information with regard to storms, derelicts, ice bergs, and general meteorological information. Also through them at noon each day time signals are sent out broadcast by the Naval Observatory. When the high-powered station at Washington is erected noon signals will be sent out, which will reach every portion of the North Atlantic Ocean. The vessels of the navy, as well as merchant vessels, rely on these for the correction of chronometers, it being a great boon to navigators and doing much toward mitigating the perils of the sea.
    While the art of wireless may be said to be still in its infancy, already in its practical application it is as indispensable to the mariner as is the telephone to those on shore, and it is certain that eventually all ships that go to sea must be equipped. Moreover, it may be confidently predicted that in the early future no vessel, in whatever seas she may be sailing, need be out of touch with any line of communication that it may be desirable to utilize.
    With the increasing number of wireless stations that are being established it becomes more and more apparent that regulations governing their establishment and operation should be put in force. The rules and regulations adopted by the International Conference at Berlin in October, 1906, furnished the practical working system for international radio-telegraphic communication. The treaty embodying this agreement is now before the Senate and it is hoped that it will be duly ratified.
    Wireless telephony has been tested on board a number of ships, but as yet it has not proved a valuable or satisfactory means of communication. It is believed, however, that at no late date telephonic communication between vessels will be thoroughly reliable.
    Interesting features of the past year in wireless are the increase in message work at all stations, the general increase in distance of transmission, and the decrease of interruption due to static interference. Numerous cases of trans-Pacific communication have been reported, ships in the vicinity of and wireless stations on the Hawaiian Islands having exchanged messages with Farallon Islands, California. During the cruise of the Atlantic Fleet messages were received across Central America, by Pensacola and Washington, and by a system of relays the fleet was in touch with Washington on the trip across the Pacific practically at all times until after New Zealand was reached.
    The amount of work accomplished by the various government stations is shown by the following table, giving the number of messages received and transmitted by each from July 1,1907, to July 1, 1908:
 
Name.Messages--Words--
 Sent. Received. Sent. Received.
Cape Elizabeth, Me. a12631655226
Portsmouth, N. H.4055993,4504,524
Boston, Mass.9811,57120,55134,023
Cape Cod, Mass.1,7712,08516,38122,384
Newport, R. I.8562,5497,83924,969
Nantucket Shoals light-ship.7127755,0987,982
Fire Island, N. Y.7236771,1331,198
Navy-yard, New York.82388619,11341,637
Philadelphia, Pa. a.971382,4693,161
Cape Henlopen, Del.2772913,7005,150
Annapolls, Md.36143112,05016,299
Washington, D. C.75896316,01420,071
Norfolk, Va.1,1981,03928,37723,669
Jamestown Exposition. a3633680890
Cape Henry, Va.1,4641,35619,19422,716
Beaufort N. C.961,0682,54713,310
Diamond Shoal light-ship.6506459,6179,986
Charleston, S. C.1431933,1005,200
Charleston light-ship. a1715540320
St. Augustine, Fla.1441732,9973,845
Jupiter Inlet, Fla.2428004,23916,708
Key West, Fla.2,4043,465126,401133,272
Dry Tortugas, Fla.9331,47632,99556,438
Pensacola, Fla.2482636,96911,139
New Orleans, La.7231,7538,16938,556
Isthmian Canal Zone.5035176,1908,827
Guantanamo, Cuba.42782018,24518,982
San Juan P. R.3947915,50711,005
Culebra P. R.4663117,3076,712
Mare Island, Cal.5,0095,103105,673110,968
North Head, Wash.3077317,55216,511
Cape Blanco, Oreg.3681856,4103,766
Table Bluff, Cal.61896218,38035,836
Point Loma, Cal.2,4082,39952,55064,032
Point Arguello, Cal.1,5091,45036,82336,324
Farallon Islands, Cal.2,7342,49432,30427,635
Puget Sound, Wash.1,5294,54834,68436,034
Tatoosh Island, Wash.1,4071,48151,81935,238
San Francisco, Cal.2,2482,45082,81576,956
Sitka, Alaska. a1816320276
Honolulu.741001,1612,362
Guam.7128839,25611,479
Cavite.1,9262,61439,08143,247
      Total38,90551,130870,3551,063,863
a Not in commission throughout the year.


Page 317:

HYDROGRAPHIC  OFFICE.

PILOT  CHARTS  AND  BULLETINS.

    The Hydrographic Bulletin has continued to give weekly, to mariners and shipping, timely and reliable information regarding wrecks, derelicts, icebergs, etc., on the North Atlantic and in some instances on the South Atlantic and South Pacific, as well as to other items of interest to the seagoing world. The editions have been 2,635 each, as compared with 2,525 last year. There were reported 131 wrecks and derelicts, 10 collisions with derelicts and wreckage, and 28 dangerous wrecks or derelicts outside the marine league from the coast. No vessels were lost by such collisions.
    Beginning with the issue of August 7, 1907, a note has been kept standing on the Bulletin that wireless messages regarding dangerous obstructions at sea will be sent broadcast three times a day by the naval wireless stations. Sixty messages of this kind have been telegraphed to the wireless stations for that purpose between August 19, 1907, and June 3, 1908. The bureau has instructed the wireless stations to forward to Washington such information as may come to them regarding obstructions to navigation.

Page 321:

UNITED  STATES  NAVAL  OBSERVATORY.

DEPARTMENT  OF  CHRONOMETERS  AND  TIME  SERVICE.

    The mean daily error of the noon signal for the year was 0.054 second, the maximum error on any day being 0.36 second.
    In connection with the New Year's eve telegraphic time signals, which were sent out as usual, it is of interest to note the fact that their apparent receipt at the Mare Island Navy-Yard 0.36 second too early resulted in a redetermination of the longitude of that observatory by the exchange of observers and telegraphic signals with Lick Observatory. The former accepted value, 8 hours 9 minutes 5.29 seconds, was thus changed to 8 hours 9 minutes 5.63 seconds west from Greenwich. The close agreement of the error, 0.34 second, with that indicated by the too early receipt of our time signals, 0.36 second, is a remarkable confirmation of the rapidity and accuracy with which our signals were transmitted across the continent by the Western Union Telegraph Company, which also sends them daily to all of the naval time-ball stations, as well as to the wireless stations, from which they are sent broadcast.