The Guantanamo Bay station was the last of the five stations built, under the U.S. Navy contract. Although it actually didn't meet all the requirements of the contract with respect to continuous communication, it worked well enough for the Navy to accept. Over the years the Navy would continue to upgrade the stations, to increase their ranges and reliability.
Radio Broadcast, March, 1925, pages 916-925:

How  Wireless  Came  to  Cuba
The  Drama  and  Struggle  of  Strenuous  Radio  Times  in  the  Jungle--Hitherto  Unpublished  Memoirs  of  High  Technical  and  Human  Interest--What  Really  Happened  in  the  Early  Days  of  Wireless  Telegraphy

Former  Chief  Assistant  to  Dr.  Lee  De Forest

THE way we went about building a wireless telegraph station in 1905 was an entirely different procedure from that followed to-day when the modern radio engineer starts out to construct a broadcasting or any other type of radio station.
    Instead of blue prints to guide us in those pioneer days we used only past "experience," and our stock of that was mighty limited. If past "experience" failed as a means of attaining further satisfactory results, then we relied upon patience and determination. These unscientific assets were all we had to help us in the working out of each new problem. tents
    Up to this time, three high powered stations had been erected by Dr. Lee De Forest, one at the St. Louis World's Fair, one at Pensacola, and the third at Key West, Florida. These stations, while practically of the same design and construction, had presented in their building individual problems which had to be worked out. These experiences had somewhat tempered our conceit as to what we thought we knew about installation. We began to realize the uncertainty of any set radio laws, and to expect anything to happen, or fail to happen.
    This was the situation when I went to Guantanamo, Cuba, to erect the next in the series of five powerful stations to be built by Dr. De Forest for the United States Navy Department.
    I sailed from Key West early in the spring of 1905 for Havana from whence I was to take a train overland to Santiago and from these embark once more by boat to within a few miles of my destination.
    A brief stay in the delightful city of Havana enabled me to form an idea of the difficulties I would have in a country whose language I didn't know and where buying facilities were very inadequate. My stay there was during the celebration of the first Cuban Independence Day, which resembled our own Fourth of July. The city was full of natives from all over the island, and when the train left Havana that evening I was mixed in with the most motley lot of passengers I ever met. I was the only American. A great quantity of wire, instruments, etc. had been shipped to me at Havana from New York. Having been forewarned of the advisability of not checking this material as baggage or shipping it via express on account of the unreliability and slowness of these methods, I decided to take it all in the car with me. As a result, my seat in the so-called "sleeper" resembled a baggage car.


THE train dragged along slowly all night and seemed to stop at every sugar plantation. In the morning we stopped thirty minutes at a town for breakfast which was served in a large room adjoining the depot. The passengers swarmed in there like a lot of cattle. There were no chairs, just long benches to sit on. Everybody grabbed and so did I. They all talked Spanish, and they all talked at once. I was the only American in the crowd. The only Spanish knew was "agua" but as they did not have any water, this one-word proficiency in the language was useless. Everybody was drinking wine, so I drank it, too, the while I sat in amaze as I watched the others empty glass after glass until they were stopped only by the call that the train was ready to move on.
    At each station I hoped that some one would come aboard who could speak English. But all that I heard from the new passengers as well as the old, was Spanish. During the stop for lunch I was sitting rather disconsolate by myself when I noticed a dapper young Cuban army officer, who had, apparently, been to Havana for the recent celebration. He appeared very popular with the entire crowd. Just before leaving the station to board the train he came over to me and said, in perfect English, "Hello, John. Are you going to Santiago?" Every stranger in Cuba in those days was called, "John."
    When I replied in the affirmative, the dashing young officer told me that he, also, was going there. From that moment the aspect of the trip was changed. I had found a companion, and a delightful one he proved to be!
DeForest postcard
The postal card was mailed in St. Louis on June 14, 1905. He writes: "To the brave boys who run naked and fight pulgas and other obstructions in the place called Guantanamo (Spanish for h---l) Better pull in a few msgs. [messages] from Key West and you will receive a pair of gold garters --no blanks--cheer up--Doc." And along the side: "'Ahoy there on board the Amphitrite--Doc sends his compliments'" The pulgas are small insects, almost invisible. They swarmed about the station in clouds, and their bite, while not poisonous, was very annoying. Since these insects chose to hover under clothing, the radio pioneers at Guantanamo often took the easiest way and removed most of theirs, hence Dr. De Forest's remark about the "boys who run naked"

    About three o'clock the train stopped at what appeared to be a railway terminal. I stepped out to the platform for a little exercise while engines were being changed. After about ten minutes everything was in readiness, yet the train did not move. Fifteen, twenty, thirty minutes passed, and still we stood there. I noticed a little crowd by the baggage car so I strolled up to investigate the trouble. Imagine my surprise to find the entire crew circled around a large coil of wire which had been taken from my seat while I was away. All were talking excitedly and casting suspicious glances at me. I couldn't understand the situation. I hurried back to the "sleeper" to seek the assistance of my English-speaking Cuban friend. He came forward with me and asked what the trouble was. They explained that it was against the rules of the company to carry such kind of "baggage" in the sleeping car unless the express charges on it were paid. I had visions of a hold-up which would either mean most of my money for carrying charges or the confiscation of my tools and material. So I asked my interpreter to inquire the amount of the charges. The excited gestures and the combined talking of the crew increased my fears and I expected the worst. Imagine my surprise, however, when I was told I would have to pay the railroad company thirteen cents in American money to release the wire so that the train could proceed with my baggage in the sleeper. Upon payment of this sum I had to wait for several receipts and then the train again started on its journey.
    We arrived at Santiago about nine o'clock that evening after a twenty six hour drag. It was dark and the town was lighted with old fashioned kerosene street lamps. Through the officer I engaged several Cuban boys to assist me to the dock with my luggage as there were no conveyances about. From here I boarded a small steamer en route to Boqueron, located on the interior shores of the Bay of Guantanamo.
    The boat steamed out of the bay and past old Morro Castle over the spot where, a few years before, Hobson had sunk the Merrimac. We skirted the southern shore of the island and could see, as we passed by, the dim outlines of some of the hulls of the Spanish fleet which Admiral Sampson beached during the Spanish war.


EARLY the next morning we arrived at the little group of huts which was called Boqueron. This hamlet port was the nearest point to the site of the contemplated government wireless station, which in Spanish was called telegrafo sin hilo.
    It will be remembered that it was only a few years previous to this time that the Spanish-American war occurred which resulted in the freedom of the Cuban people. The United States Government had only very recently completed the arrangements of the formal turning over of the island to its natives, and it was the jollification at Havana which I saw only a few days before which had been held in honor of the event. In this transaction it was agreed that the United States should retain a small spot in Cuba as a naval base and coaling station. The site selected was the Bay of Guantanamo and its surrounding land consisting approximately of thirty-six square miles. About half of this was land and half water. The entrance from the sea was through a narrow inlet with high hills on either side extending along the coast. It was an ideal land-locked harbor, and big enough to accommodate all the navies of the world at once.
    The sight of the harbor was inspiring, and the sight of Boqueron was depressing in proportion. The principal building was at the dock. A few native huts, a store and a saloon, housed the entire population of, perhaps, twenty-five people. The loungers around the dock were a tough looking lot. I learned later that a few of them were fugitives from justice, and two were wanted in the United States for murder.
    As I needed assistance to get overland to my destination I engaged a Jamaican, George Morehead, who spoke English, to go as my guide. We strapped the luggage across the backs of two horses and started afoot on the hike through the jungle to the government "lines" beyond which was the continuance of the jungle to the point where the wireless station was to be built. Government surveyors were the only ones who had preceded me through this wilderness, and the marks of their hatchets as they hewed the trail through the underbrush, were the only signs that any one had ever been there before. The land on this entire reservation, and for miles beyond, was in its virgin state. All was a dense undergrowth and jungle, interspersed with low, arid, sand flats: a paradise for mosquitoes, snakes, horned toads, scorpions, tarantulas, wild cats, and all other kinds of tropical creatures, flying and crawling.
    I found George an intelligent fellow, entertaining and trustworthy. This in itself was a godsend, as one would hardly expect to find anything like honor in surroundings such as these. As we journeyed he asked me if I had a pistol and I told him I had. He advised me to carry it always in my belt whether or not I ever had occasion to use it, as the many bad characters down there behaved only when they knew that you had a gun. I later found this advice valuable.

Native hut ONE of my first thrills happened on this pathfinder trip. As we emerged from the jungle trail onto a wide level stretch of sand flats, I noticed that far ahead of us the earth looked bluish white, while beneath us it was hard packed salty sand. Nearing the blue patch I noticed this "land" moving. Slowly the bluish white part was separating in the middle with a wide swath and making a path showing the earth underneath. My companion, noticing my amazement, smiled and told me that this was a large army of land crabs scampering away to avoid us. They were there by the millions--ugly, worthless, destructive creatures with glaring, protruding eyes and wicked claws, some of them as big as human hands. In their cowardly nature they scurried and scampered away from us. But had we fallen helpless by the wayside they would immediately have returned to devour us.
    A short time previous to my arrival the U. S. monitor, Amphitrite, had anchored in the harbor with officers and men to break ground for the construction of the new Naval Station. This ship was the Naval headquarters of the entire reservation and its commanding officer was the acting Commandant of the Navy Yard. Three Navy electricians from the ship were assigned ashore with me. They were: John Watts, Chief Electrician, of New York, Roscoe Kent of St. Paul, and V. Ford Greaves of Minneapolis. First we lived in a tent and got our food supplies from the ship. The initial general work to be done was the clearing of the dense growth of mango bushes which grew profusely along the shores around the station site. This made sport for the mosquitoes. Next a small dock was made so as to land supplies for the engine house and other necessary material. Finally, the engine house was completed to the extent that we could move in there until our regular living quarters were finished. Mosquitoes by the millions abounded and they made life miserable for us both day and night until we were able to obtain the necessary fine mesh netting to protect our tent and house.
    It was not uncommon to be awakened in the night by the sound of a wildcat outside, for the animal was attracted there by the smell of food. Once we failed to close the flap of our tent and were awakened in the middle of the night by a suspicious but familiar sound inside. We switched a flashlight in the direction of the sound. Instantly a huge cat sprang completely across three of our cots to the tent opening and escaped with our next day's quota of meat.
    Any one who has ever witnessed a southern sky can understand our enjoyment in watching the southern constellations which are so different from those at home. Huge fireflies as big as bumblebees emitting a bright green light filled the air at night. Small deer were plentiful and once we shot a fine specimen from our door. In the nearby inlets were the beautiful pink plumed flamingo birds so free from the haunts of man as not to fear our approach. In the waters all about us were gold fish, star fish, sea urchins, cow fish, and scores of other tropical wonder fish, besides many of the edible variety.
    But enjoyment of the scenery had to take second place to work. Heavy concrete abutments were constructed for the huge towers. These were in triangle formation three hundred feet apart. The towers were made of eight inch timbers, about three feet square at the base and tapering to one foot square at the top. They were two hundred and eight feet high. Suspended from the cross cables at the top was a big fan antenna from each of the three sides of the triangle. Heavy, seven-strand phosphor bronze wire was used and each triangle consisted of about 15,000 feet of wire or a total of 45,000. feet for the entire cage. This immense amount of wire weighed over a third of a ton, or the equivalent to the amount used to-day by radio fans in building five hundred sets of antennas. The huge cage resembled a giant gold fish globe two hundred feet high, and months afterwards, when the station was in operation, the mesh of wires would emit a bluish brush discharge at night which was beautiful beyond description, and always proved of unending awe to the natives who would stand off from afar and gaze in open mouthed wonder.

wireless station
THE main building consisted of six rooms, which included living quarters. About 100 feet distant was the engine house which contained a 50-horsepower gasoline driven dynamo that furnished the electrical power. The station was rated at 20 kilowatts. One room contained the operating instruments, another the huge condenser trays, the spark gap and helix. So many wires from the antenna came into the one point of the bottom apex that it was necessary to build a gibbet to hold them on account of their weight before running them into the station.
    It so happened that the site of the station was selected by Navy officials who instead of first considering its location from the point of its adaptability for perfect wireless work, selected it because that particular space was down on the blue print as the place, just as every other building planned for the reservation. As a result, a worse location could not have been chosen. The little peninsula upon which the station stood was wholly of coral formation, entirely dead as far as moisture or good ground facilities were concerned. This condition gave us no end of trouble in getting the station to function properly.
    The days were hot and dry and the insects bothered us so much that work progressed slowly in the erection of the buildings and the installation of the apparatus. Many times it was necessary to tie a towel around one's face, neck, and head, leaving only opening enough to see and breathe, wearing overalls and shirts saturated in kerosene was another method used to ward off the pestering insects.
    Hard luck seemed to follow every move. High winds often blew down our antenna, and the station was struck by lightning three times. Once we experienced a slight earthquake shock, but aside from frightening us it did no damage.
    An outcast Frenchman by name of Émile was our cook. He spoke broken English, poor Spanish, and never ceased telling us of his acquaintance with Sarah Bernhardt. He was a chef by courtesy only, but was the best we could procure in that godforsaken land. Another interesting member of our family was Marianna Binega, a Cuban, loyal to the last degree. He was a general roustabout, but did everything in his power for us. He watched over our health and comfort always, once saving me from the bite of a scorpion by quickly cautioning me not to put my arm in the sleeve of a coat which had been hanging for some time in the closet without being worn. Excitedly he told me in Spanish (which by this time I had begun to grasp) to shake the garment. Sure enough, out from the sleeve dropped the wicked insect which Marianna quickly surrounded with an oiled wick, then lighted it so that the scorpion would commit suicide--which it did--thus giving me, as Marianna had designed--another souvenir, which I still possess. To Marianna, I was, "Mistah Fraang." Kent was "Mistah Kee." Watts was "Mistah Gwaa" and Greaves was "Mistah Greavo." He was as faithful as Friday to us.

operating room FOR some reason, unknown to me, a so-called government inspector was sent there for the purpose of watching me and my work. I will not mention his name here, but Marianna called him "Mistah Sinka-Walla" and that name stuck with him till he left after I did. He stayed on the job religiously for eleven long months, every day, Sunday included, from 8 A. M. till 5 P. M. He watched me constantly and said nothing. Never a word of encouragement or suggestion, but whenever anything went wrong he was always there with his familiar, "I thought so."
    As we had no fresh water supply on account of the dead ground formation, we made a cement cistern to hold our drinking water. To obtain this water it was necessary for the Government tug to steam up the Guantanamo River to where the supply was fresh, there fill its tanks, and then run down to our dock and fill the cistern. Usually it required half a day to do this and of course was of some expense to the Government, so naturally we tried to be as saving with the water as possible. One day after this filling was done, we forgot to place the cover over the cistern hole and that night a big wildcat, smelling the fresh water, went to the opening, fell overboard, and was drowned. The next morning Mr. Watts notified the officer on the ship of what had occurred, and requested that the water be pumped out and the cistern refilled with fresh water. A prompt, curt refusal was the result. Such an order coming from their superior officer had to be obeyed, of course. I then sent a similar request and received the answer that the matter had been taken care of through Mr. Watts. Here, then, was the first time it was necessary for me to use the special letter I had from the Secretary of the Navy which requested all officials where I operated to assist me in every possible way. Without further argument I cabled Washington. Within a few hours an answer came and we got what we asked for. A short time afterwards a case of yellow fever broke out in the laboring camps near by and my three Navy companions were ordered to vacate the station and come aboard ship until the disease subsided. This inhuman action left me helpless and alone at the station with an imminent danger near. I again sought recourse from the Navy department with instant and satisfactory results.
    In reviewing my old diary I find under date of Tuesday, November 14th, 1905, that I employed an individual by name of Joe Francis to repair a parted main antenna cable which spanned the space of 300 feet between two masts. To repair this was not only a difficult task but an extremely dangerous one because most of the splicing work had to be done 200 feet above the ground. No one but Francis could be found who was daredevil enough to risk it. He was a notorious bad man and had a price on his head for a murder alleged to have been committed in the United States. I dickered with him to do the job for $40.00 and he accepted.
    However, after he had nearly finished the work, and while sitting up there swaying between heaven and earth, he called down and declined to proceed unless I doubled the amount of pay. This I flatly refused to do and he still maintained his strike until I drew my pistol and threatened to shoot him down from his perch unless he completed the job as he had contracted to do. To this threat he promptly replied: "I guess you'd do that all right, Mistah Frank. I'll finish the job." I kept him covered while he continued the work because he continually looked down at me to see if I still meant business. He afterwards told others he was going to get me for that trick.
    One night about nine o'clock, a few days later, one of the station boys and myself were returning with fruit from "the halfway house," a tent shack, not far away where native fruits and vegetables could be bought. operating room
    The night was starlit and the journey was three miles over a zigzag path through the jungle. We had to walk single file. Some of the spots on the way were so dense with overhanging moss and tropical foliage as to entirely cut out the view of the sky. There were comparatively few snakes here, but there were plenty of horned toads, tarantulas, land crabs, mosquitoes, and wildcats, so we always carried a pistol. At a spot, such as this, one third of the way home we met Joe Francis. He spoke coolly and slunk by us like a panther, looking over his shoulder as he passed. Fortunately I was ahead of my partner and I think this was what saved me. We were suspicious of his designs, so the instant he left our view we turned off the trail and penetrated the jungle, deciding to attempt to feel our way home through the unchartered underbrush. This, in itself was dangerous, but we thought it the lesser of the two evils. Scarcely had we left the path and fallen to the ground than we heard Francis retracing his steps stealthily. Not having a compass with us we selected, before moving, a group of stars which we figured was above the wireless station. Then, instead of starting directly for the station we doubled back further toward the way we had come and planned on a wide circle around so as to enter the station from the other side, thus avoiding that trail entirely. We encountered bogs, marshes and everything imaginable, but after several hours of maneuvering we reached home safely and without further adventure.
    About a week later, Castro Frerrar, a Spanish surveyor with whom I was well acquainted, was stabbed and killed on this lonely trail a short distance from the wireless station. No one ever knew who did the deed or for what purpose. He was about the same size as I and might easily have been mistaken for me. The singular coincidence was that Joe Francis left a few days later and was never seen or heard of afterward.


FINALLY after many months the station was completed and the long series of tests began. Static was terrific. It was a continual rumble. Our principal tuning device was a two-coil slider which to-day would not be considered worth anything by a nine year-old school boy with a crystal set. Realizing the immense importance of developing the receiving end of wireless, Dr. De Forest left Key West and went back to New York to study out this problem. sparkgap
    I firmly believe it was our gruelling experience with these southern stations that turned the doctor's attention so strongly toward this subject that he never gave it up until he later perfected the heart of radio--his three-element audion bulb, without which present day broadcasting and receiving would be impossible.
    His immediate work, however, after going north was to perfect a tuning device which would handle static better. This led to his invention of the pancake tuner which consisted of fine insulated wire wound spirally on glass with variable adjustments. This we found more efficient than anything used previously and it became one of the principal elements in the success of these installations.
    In reviewing the many letters which passed between Dr. De Forest and me during these trying days it is gratifying and interesting to note his keen appreciation of our difficult work--his determination to succeed, and his constant belief in ultimate success. Too much credit cannot be given to Dr. De Forest for what he has contributed toward the development of wireless and radio. His dominant persistence, patience and ability were, as prominent two score years ago as they are to-day. Had this development been left in the hands of a less determined or less capable man than he, it would probably not be in the advanced stage it is to-day. I firmly believe this, because during the twenty years I have watched the progress of radio I have seen many experimenters who started with great expectations but soon fell by the wayside, not strong enough at heart or in ability to stand the test of constant disappointments.
    Here are a few excerpts from some of the De Forest letters:
    July 28th, 1905:  Your very interesting letter concerning the lightning storm received. It was very graphic account of a frightful experience. Appreciate your devotion to the cause in taking the risk you did and am glad so little damage to our apparatus occurred.
    August 9th, 1905:  You certainly are the star martyr to the wireless cause at present and have our fullest sympathies--if those will do you any appreciable good. None of us are too happy or enjoying flowery beds of ease. It is a tough problem and I can't tell what "ist los," but will keep trying new stunts until it is solved. "Never say die," and "You can't stop a Yank," are the two cardinal mottoes of the wireless bunch, you know.
    October 4th, 1905:  I am enclosing plan for connecting up the six condensers. The tinfoil has been shipped from the lab. You can put this on with paraffin, as we generally do now, building up the whole thing under oil. (Imagine working for days with arms immersed in kerosene.)
    November 8th, 1905:  Glad to get your long letter of 30th, and regret it is so full of hard luck tales. Sincerely hope your big transformer (weighing a ton) won't blow up again and believe that the new ground plate will remedy your troubles. You show splendid grit as you always do in facing these difficulties.
    November 20th, 1905:  Your yellow feverish, earth quakish letter came to hand this morning. I am sorry your troubles are holding up so well, but do not get discouraged as we have ours here, and you have not succeeded in cornering the trouble market by any means.
    December 26, 1905.  I want to thank you most heartily for the very kind letter of Christmas greetings you wrote me. There is no one in our employ who has shown himself more loyal and determined in his efforts to hasten success of the system than yourself, and you may be sure that I appreciate it fully.
    Then, in reviewing my diary of that year, the following few terse sentences graphically portray the unbroken schedule of daily mishaps we encountered:
    June 5th, 1905:   Big 50 H. P. motor generator blew up, damaging armature.
    June 7th.   Commenced taking off tin roof on building and substituting it with asbestos.
    June 12th.   Commenced repairing damaged trays in condensers.
    June 14th.   Lined condenser trays with portland cement.
    June 26th.   Killed an 8-foot Moha snake in back yard. This was the cause of so many of our chickens disappearing.
    July 10th.   Constructed plate glass condensers for motor and circuit breakers.
    July 13th.   Terrific storm 2:30 A. M. Lightning struck station bursting an entire room full of condensers--just finished after two weeks of hard work--throwing oil and plate glass all over the room and into the walls.
    July 14th.   Repaired damaged antenna wires.
    July 26th.   Changed all d. c. wiring throughout station 36 inches away from a. c. from engine house to station.
    August 14th.   Rained this evening during exceedingly bright moon which caused unusual phenomena of two bright rainbows at night.
    August 21st.   Small cyclone struck us.
    August 31st.   Lightning struck the station at 4:15 P. M. blowing up one set of condensers.
    September 5th.   No fresh water. Had to drink salt water all day.
    Sept. 24th.   Another entire span of 15,000 feet antenna wire blew down.
    Sept. 27th.   Touched off station again and blower motor blew up.
    October 8th.   Herd of horses from workmen's camp broke corral in night and demolished the guy wires on the entire aerial spans twisting wires badly.
    October 15th.   Earthquake at 4:43 P. M. while eating supper.
    October 17th.   Finished new ground to-day.
    October 19th.   Rewound blower armature.
    November 7th.   Secretary of Navy Taft visited us to-day.
    November 17th.   Heard Key West and Pensacola first time.
    December 10th.   Key West heard us first time. Blew up blower motor.
    December 15th.   Big two-ton transformer blew up.
    I had almost begun to think I was waging a hopeless battle against nature as week after week a fresh burst of some new and unforeseen trouble presented itself.

DeForest telegram
To Mr. Butler and his associates in Cuba. It was filed in Pensacola, Florida on August 3, 1905 and reads: "Butler Naval Wireless Station Guantanamo listen five thirty to eleven thirty A. M. no night work check coming Lee De Forest". Many messages of this sort had to be exchanged before the new Naval station in Cuba could be put in order.
ABOVE the door of our station we tacked a motto: "Abandon hope, all ye who enter here, for verily this is hell." It was there for months and was a grim way we had of joking with ourselves.
    It was not until the following March that we finally overcame all our troubles and succeeded in establishing communication with our distant stations to the entire satisfaction of the Navy Department.
    When the end finally came, when my work was finished, I was more than overjoyed to get away from that place of trials, but I was sorrowful to leave my three faithful navy companions, Watts, Kent, and Greaves, likewise faithful Marianna, who so loyally stood by me through, perhaps, the most crucial period that any group of early wireless workers ever experienced.
    In the meantime, Dr. De Forest had sailed for Europe and shortly after my arrival in New York I received the following letter from him, which I highly prize, because of the wonderful sentiment and appreciation it discloses.
                    London, E. C.
                    April 20th, 1906
Mr. Frank E. Butler,
          New York City.
    Upon the occasion of the final acceptance by the U. S. Navy of the five large stations, of which you have been in charge, I wish to extend to you on behalf of myself and of the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co., congratulations, hearty and sincere, and to felicitate you upon your safe return to God's country.
    Too often it is the case that while the faults and blunders of men receive prompt and severe criticism, the merits of their work, the fidelity of their services pass unacknowledged, even if fully appreciated by their employers. I trust that this may never be the policy of our company.
    All of the officials of this corporation have watched with intense pride the heroic efforts you have made, the great patience through long months of discouragement and difficulties which have necessarily preceded this success. I can deeply appreciate the nature of your labors, your trials, the hardships you have undergone, for it has been my good fortune to have been with you at your post and shared in, while directing your work.
    This work, these experiments, these long-drawn-out tests, carried on in the face of unforeseen and manifold difficulties have, I believe, not only achieved the wireless success intended, but have been the means of developing character, a determination to bear and achieve like good soldiers; have ripened a friendship and a loyalty to one another and to a worthy cause, which constitutes in life elements of even greater value than commercial success.
    We do not, we cannot forget the obstacles you have had to face and which you have bravely overcome.
    For tedious months away from home and friends, in climates scorching and unhealthy, deprived of all usual comforts of life, tormented night and day by insect pests, distressed but not baffled by static unknown to any other wireless workers, delayed month after month by breakdowns of Navy apparatus, continually called upon to make repairs, often without proper tools, facing skeptical criticism, surrounded by hostility, open or concealed on the part of officials from whom we had every reason to expect cooperation and interest,--yet, you have stuck to your posts, have triumphed over one difficulty after another, have forced new secrets from Nature, and having by your tenacity, patience and skill accomplished your ends, you have won at last acknowledgment of the success of the system from the entire Navy Department, and set a new standard in the art of Wireless Telegraphy.
    In view of your services in this unexampled undertaking we wish to express, although in inadequate words, some portion of praise you so well deserve, and to express our confidence that this navy work is but the beginning of greater things we are yet to accomplish together in wireless.
          Very sincerely yours,
       Vice Pres. and Scientific Director.
    All the desperate trials of the Cuban experience seemed wiped out by this letter. For were they not worth it, those trials, when one was working for Dr. Lee De Forest?