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History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy, Captain Linwood S. Howeth, USN (Retired), 1963, pages 513-546:

Appendix  A.  Chronology  of  Developments  in  Communications  and  Electronics


Thales of Miletus noticed the phenomena of static electricity acquired by amber upon its being rubbed.


William Gilbert first used the term "electric force" in his published volume "De Magnete." (England)


Otto von Guerke developed the first frictional electric machine. (Germany)


Olav Roemer discovered that light travels at a finite velocity. (Denmark)


Stephen Gray discovered that electricity could be conducted as a current. (England)


Pieter Van Musschenbroeck discovered the principle of the electrostatic condenser. This led to the invention of the Leyden jar. (Holland),


Benjamin Franklin demonstrated that lightning is an electrical phenomena.


The Continental Navy, forerunner of the U.S. Navy, was established. Ezek Hopkins was appointed Commander in Chief.
    The Continental Congress issued naval signal instructions. They consisted of signals based upon the manipulation of sails and the positions from which flags were displayed.


A squadron of Continental vessels, dispatched to intercept the British West Indian Fleet, was directed to develop and promulgate signals to assist in discovering the enemy and advising of his locations and strength.


Captain Thomas Truxton, U.S. Navy, devised the first known American signal book using the numerary system, numeral pennants, and several repeater flags for signal displays. This signal book contained approximately 300 signals. Fog signals were made by gunfire. Night signals were made by lanterns and gunfire.


William Herschel discovered the existence of infrared rays. (England)


Sir Humphrey Davy exhibited an electric carbon arc light. (England)


The U.S. Navy issued the Barron Signal Book, the work of Commodore John Barry, U.S. Navy, and Capt. James Barron, U.S. Navy. Basically, it was the same as the Truxton Signal Book, which it superseded, except that it was better organized.


The first revision to the Barron Signal Book was promulgated to the U.S. Navy. Flags replaced pennants and shapes were added.


As a result of slow communications, the Battle of New Orleans was fought 15 days after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.


Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic properties of an electric current. (Denmark)


Johann Schweigger invented the first practical galvanometer. (Germany)
    James Bowman Lindsay conducted experiments in communications utilizing the conductive properties of water. (Scotland)


Andre' M. Ampere propounded the relationship between electricity and magnetism. (France)


The Secretary of the Navy assigned the responsibility for U.S. naval communications to the Board of Naval Commissioners.


George Simon Ohm discovered the relationship between the flow of electric current, resistance, and voltage. (Germany)
    Jean Francois Arago proposed that propagated sound waves be utilized to measure ocean depths. (Italy)


Sir Charles Wheatstone developed an acoustic device for the amplification of weak sounds. (England)


Michael Farraday developed electromagnetic induction formulae. (England) Joseph Henry demonstrated the principle of electromagnetic induction. Farraday published the results of his experiments a year earlier than Henry.
    Joseph Henry discovered the properties of mutual inductance and self-induction. He also improved the electromagnet and constructed the first electrically operated bell.


Samuel F. B. Morse made application for a U.S. patent for telegraph system. Sir Charles Wheatstone made application for an English patent on a similar system.


Carl August von Steinheil discovered the use of the earth-return. (Germany)
    Joseph Henry first produced high-frequency electric oscillations and discovered that a condenser discharge is oscillatory.


Lt. Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN, appointed to command the U.S. Navy Depot of Charts and Instruments. In this capacity he instituted a program of taking exact measurements of ocean depths by naval vessels.


Alexander Bain developed the basic principles of transmitting pictures by electrical means. (England)


The U.S. Congress appropriated $30,000 for the erection of a telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington.
    Samuel F. B. Morse, while experimenting with communication by conduction across water, concluded that electricity could be conducted by water without the use of wire.
    Samuel F. B. Morse and Alfred N. Vail devised the Morse Code.


Telegraph circuit between Baltimore and Washington placed in operation.


The Rogers and Black Semaphore Dictionary was adopted by the U.S. Navy but the Barron Signal Book (U.S. Navy Signal Book) was retained for tactical purposes.


After completing the development of an electric telegraph instrument utilizing an electromagnetic relay, John Walker Wilkins predicted that "telegraphing without wires might be a possibility." (England)


The First International Telegraph Conference was held in Berlin, Germany. This Conference compiled the Continental Code using 11 letters of the Morse Code.


A. H. L. Fizeau shunted a Leyden jar across the terminals of the interruptor of an induction coil, thereby increasing the width of the spark gap and the efficiency of the coil. (France)


Lt. Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN, attempted to measure ocean depths by underwater explosion, but was unsuccessful because he did not use a direct connection between the ear and the sea.


S. A. Varley patented an induction coil, forerunner of the alternating current transformer. (England)


Leon Scott developed an instrument for recording sound. (France)


First transatlantic telegraph cable was opened.
    The U.S. Navy Signal Book was revised. The Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography was assigned the responsibility for signals and ciphers.


Julius Plucker observed cathode rays. (Germany)


Philip Reis designed a make-and-break platinum contact microphone capable of transmitting musical sounds but not speech. (Germany)
    Civil War began in U.S. and a revised signal book was issued to the U.S. Navy.


The Bureau of Navigation was assigned the responsibility for signals and ciphers. The U.S. Navy was directed to adopt the U.S. Army wire telegraph system of signals.


Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff designed a radically improved induction coil. (Germany)
    Civil War ended in U.S.


James Clerk Maxwell predicted the actions of electromagnetic waves. (Scotland)


The U.S. Navy Signal Office was established. A new U.S. Navy Signal Book was issued.
    The U.S. Naval Observatory, the Washington Fire Alarm Telegraphic Office, and the Washington Western Union office were connected by telegraph lines for the purpose of providing a nationwide exact time service from the Observatory. From this service originated the well-known phrase, "Naval Observatory Time."


Von Bezold discovered that the oscillations set up by a condenser discharge were of varying frequencies which created mutual interferences. (Germany)


The U.S. Navy Signal Office issued the first American edition of the International Signal Code to facilitate communications between the Navy and the merchant marine.
    The first patent for a wireless communication system was issued in the United States to Dr. Mahlon Loomis of Washington, D.C. It was based upon a drawing illustrating how the setting up of "disturbances in the atmosphere would cause electric waves to travel through the atmosphere and ground."


Joseph May discovered the photoelectric property of selenium. (Ireland)


Karl Ferdinand Braun discovered that galena-copper pyrites and other metallic sulphides offered higher resistances to the passage of an electric current through them in one direction than in the opposite direction. (Germany)


Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
    Thomas Alva Edison observed the phenomenon of "etheric force".
    John Kerr discovered the polarizing property of a nitrobenzene solution subjected to high voltage. This lead to the development of the Kerr cell which was a vital component of early television projectors which utilized mechanical scanning systems. (Scotland)
    The U.S. Navy experimented with electric lights for visual signaling purposes.
    Lord Kelvin developed the first practicable pressure tube for measuring water depths of less than 100 fathoms.


The U.S. Navy adopted the English Morse telegraphic code.


Lt. W. N. Wood, USN, perfected a system of electric lights for transmission of the English Morse telegraphic code.
    Thomas Alva Edison developed apparatus which gave the first audible reproduction of recorded sound.
    Emile Berliner observed that the resistance of a loose contact varies with pressure and applied this to microphone design.
    Thomas Alva Edison patented a telephone transmitter of the variable resistance amplifying type using a button of solid carbon as the resistance element.


Sir William Crookes invented the Crookes tube and demonstrated the properties of cathode rays. (England)
    David E. Hughes was among the early discoverers of the phenomena controlling the action of the coherer. In experiments made in developing an inertia transmitter, he utilized a steel needle in loose contact with a piece of coke. This was essentially a self-restoring coherer. (England)
    The signaling method of Wood, devised in 1877, increased the U.S. Navy's range of flashing lights from 6 to 16 miles.


Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered the piezo-electric effect of quartz crystals. (France)
    Julius Elster and Hans Geitel experimented with glass bulbs, both vacuum and gas filled, which contained a metal plate and an electrically heated wire, and observed that electrified particles were radiated by the wire in all directions. (Germany)


Professor Amos E. Dolbear was granted a U.S. patent for a wireless system.


Edison discovered that an electric current can be made to pass through space between a hot filament and an adjacent metallic plate. This was later called "Edison Effect."


Paul Nipkow was granted a German patent on a television scanning disc. (Germany)


Sir Williams Preece transmitted telephonic speech over 1,000 feet by conduction. (England)


Prof. Amos E. Dolbear was granted a patent on a wireless system which utilized two elevated metallic conductors.
    Prof. Heinrich Hertz proved that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted through space at the speed of light. This confirmed Maxwell's Theory. He also demonstrated that these waves could be reflected and refracted.
    Alternating current was utilized for the first time in the United States in a commercial lighting system.


Lt. (later Rear-Adm.) Bradley A. Fiske, USN, conducted experiments in communications between ships by conduction.


Prof. Edouard Branly developed the coherer. (France)
    Julius Elster and Hans Geitel developed the first phototube. This was sensitive to both visible light and ultraviolet rays. (Germany)
    The responsibility for signals, ciphers and signaling equipment was transferred to the Bureau of Equipment. The U.S. Navy Signal Office was abolished.


Nikola Tesla was granted U.S. Patent 454,622 on the "Tesla Coil." This coil was designed to produce a current of very high potential and very high frequency. During the same year, while experimenting with high-frequency currents, he discovered the principle of the rotary magnetic field and applied it to the induction motor.
    The Ardois system of signaling by lights was introduced in some squadrons of the U.S. Navy.


Sir William Preece signaled between two points by a system which employed both induction and conduction. This resulted in the appointment of a royal commission to investigate the practicability of the use of his system for communication between lightships and shore. (England)
    In a speech before the Royal Academy, Sir William Crookes commented upon electromagnetic waves: "Here is unfolded to us a new and astonishing world, one which is hard to conceive should contain no possibilities of transmitting and receiving intelligence." (England)


Guglielmo Marconi transmitted and received his first radio signals. (Italy)
    Captain Henry Jackson, Royal Navy, commenced radio experiments in the British Navy. (England)
    Alexander S. Popoff reported he had transmitted and received radio signals a distance of 600 yards utilizing Hertz apparatus and a coherer. (Russia)
    Emile Berliner obtained U.S. Patent 548,623 for a method of recording sound on a flat disc of hard rubber.


Guglielmo Marconi transmitted and received radio signals over a distance of 2 miles. (England)
    Capt. William Jackson, Royal Navy, was successful in establishing radio communication between two ships. (England)


The Telephotos system of signaling by lights replaced the Ardois system in the U.S. Navy.
    Radio messages were exchanged between Layernock, South Wales, and the Island of Flatholm, a distance of 3½ miles. (England) (11 May)
    The Wireless Telegraph Co. & Signal, Ltd., was incorporated. (England)
    Marconi was granted U.S. Patent 586,193 on his radio system.
    Marconi officially demonstrated the use of radio between ship and shore. Signals transmitted from San Bartolomeo were received on the Italian warship San Martino over a distance of 11 miles. (Italy) (20 July)
    Marconi, embarked in a tugboat, received radio messages transmitted from the Isle of Wight, distant 18 miles. (England)
    Karl Ferdinand Braun constructed the first cathode ray oscilloscope capable of scanning with an electric beam. (Germany)


The Kingstown Regatta was reported by radio to a Dublin newspaper from the steamer Flying Huntress. (Ireland)
    Lloyds established three radio stations, one on the northeast coast of Ireland, one on Rathlin Island Lighthouse and the other at Bally Castle. (England)
    Upon the outbreak of war with Spain the Secretary of the Navy directed the establishment of a U.S. Coast Signal System on the Atlantic and gulf coasts. This system was the predecessor of the U.S. Naval Communication System.
    U.S. cut cables landing in Philippines and Cuba.
    M. I. Pupin granted U.S. Patent 713,045 covering an electrolytic detector. (1 Apr.)
    Sir Oliver Lodge granted U. S. Patent 609,154 on method of radio tuning. (Aug.)
    Marconi conducted radio communications between South Foreland Lighthouse and East Goodwin Sands Lightship, a distance of 12 miles. (England)


Marconi communicated across the English Channel by radio. (England)
    The French Navy installed radio equipment on a gunboat. (France)
    The East Goodwin Sands Lightship flashed the first radio distress signal after being struck by the steamer R. F. Mathews. (England)
    United States Army Signal Corps established radio communications between Fire Island and Fire Island Lightship, a distance of 12 miles.
    Marconi radio equipment installed on H. M. S. Alexandria, Europa and Juno and used for the first time during maneuvers. Messages were exchanged for distances up to 75 miles. (England) (July)
    The U.S. Weather Bureau compiled a complete report of the investigations made by Prof. Lucian Blake with an underwater bell and microphone in his endeavors to develop an underwater signal system which would provide warnings of dangers to navigation.
    The first American radio company, the American Wireless Telephone & Telegraph Co., was incorporated. This company obtained the Dolbear patents. Harry Shoemaker and John Greenleaf Pickard were its radio engineers. (Sept.)
    Marconi arrived in the United States to radio bulletins of the America Cup races to James Gordon Bennett's New York Herald. (11 Sept.)
    The U.S. Navy, at the request of Rear Adm. R. B. Bradford, U.S. Navy, Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, appointed a board of four officers to witness and report on the operations of the Marconi equipment during the radio reporting of the America Cup races.
    Unfavorable weather delayed the beginning of the America Cup races from late September to October. Meanwhile, Admiral Dewey, who was returning from Manila to the United States, in the U.S.S. Olympia, via the Suez Canal and the Atlantic, had notified the Navy Department that he would arrive in New York on 30 September. Marconi was persuaded to go to sea with his equipment, contact the U.S.S. Olympia and make radio reports of her progress. Dewey anticipated his arrival date by 2 days and arrived in New York harbor just as Marconi was departing.
    During a naval parade, staged in honor of Dewey, the SS Ponce, carrying Marconi and his apparatus and Lt. J. B. Blish, USN, one of the observing board, was assigned a place in the parade. During the parade the first official U.S. Navy radio message, from Blish to the Navy Department, was transmitted by Marconi. (30 Sept.)
    Marconi's radio reporting of the races was a complete success and he was invited to demonstrate his equipment to the U.S. Navy.
    A U.S. Navy Wireless Telegraph Board was appointed to investigate and report on the Marconi equipment to be tested in the U.S.S. New York, Massachusetts and Porter and at Navesink Light.
    First official radio message from a U.S. naval vessel transmitted from the U.S.S. New York (2 Nov.)
    U.S. Navy tests of Marconi equipment were completed. The Wireless Telegraph Board recommended that the system be given a trial by the U.S. Navy. (8 Nov.)
    The Trans-Atlantic Times printed on the SS St. Paul, in which Marconi was a passenger returning to England, was first ship's paper to print news received by radio. Transmission of the news was from the Isle of Wight when the St. Paul was 56 miles distant. (15 Nov.)
    Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America organized. (22 Nov.)
    The U.S. Navy offered to purchase 20 sets of Marconi equipment. Offer was countered by the Marconi interests with endeavors to enter into a lease agreement. This was refused and no further negotiations were conducted. The Navy then adopted a policy of watchful waiting.


John Stone applied for a U.S. patent on a radio tuning device. (8 Feb.)
    Marconi granted British patent for a tuned system of radio. (England) (26 Apr.)
    William D. Duddell discovered that the electric arc could be made to generate high-frequency energy and succeeded in generating continuous oscillations of approximately 10,000 cycles per second. (England)
    Nikola Tesla predicted radar.
    Nikola Tesla granted a U.S. patent on control of distant objects by radio.
    Prof. Reginald A. Fessenden, while in the employ of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, accomplished the first radio transmission and reception of speech.
    The Wireless Telegraph and Signal, Ltd., was reorganized as the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd. (England)
    Lt. Comdr. (later Rear Adm.) Bradley A. Fiske was granted a U.S. patent, underlying Tesla's, on the control of distant objects by radio. (23 Oct.)
    Mr. A. J. Mundy and Prof. Elisha Gray conducted experiments with underwater sound.


Emile Berliner developed a flat disk shellac composition record.
    Commercial radio service established between the main Hawaiian Islands. (Mar.)
    The U.S. Navy continued its policy of watchful waiting of radio developments.
    Marconi's basic U.S. patent reissued as No. 11,913. Marconi, De Forest, and the American Wireless Telephone & Telegraph Co. participated in an attempt to report the America Cup races. The latter firm by creating intentional interference, prevented the transmissions of the other two participants from being received. (Sept.)
    Comdr. F. M. Barber, USN (retired) recalled to active duty for the purpose of studying and reporting upon the development and use of radio equipment in Europe. (1 Oct.)
    The Wireless Telegraph Co. of America (De Forest) organized.
    St. Johns, Newfoundland received the letter "S" transmitted from Poldhu. This is considered to be the first reception of a transatlantic radio signal. (England) (12 Dec.)
    The accomplishments of Mundy and Gray in developing an underwater sound system led to the formation of the Submarine Signal Co.


The Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department, recommended the U.S. Government take action to exercise control over radio stations.
    U.S. Navy Department issued instructions for preparing the masts of naval vessels for fitting with radio antennas.
    The De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. was incorporated. It absorbed the Wireless Telegraph Co. of America. (Feb.)
    The Consolidated Wireless Co. was incorporated and absorbed the American Wireless Telephone & Telegraph Co.
    Marconi, embarked in the SS Philadelphia, recorded Poldhu's transmission up to a distance of 1,551 miles. (England)
    The unsavory promotion of radio stocks began. Cornelius D. Ehret applied for the first patent on frequency modulation. (10 Feb.)
    The Navy Department directed Comdr. F. M. Barber, USN (retired), to purchase two complete radio sets from each of four European firms; Slaby-Arco and Braun-Siemans-Halske of Germany and Ducretet and Rochefort of France. (Mar.)
    Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, concerned with the monopolistic attitude of the Marconi interests, proposed holding an international radio conference.
    U.S. Navy constructed radio stations at Annapolis, Md., and Washington, D.C., for testing and evaluating radio apparatus.
    Lt. J. M. Hudgins, USN, and two assistants, Chief Electrician's Mates J. H. Bell and William C. Bean, were sent to Europe to study the equipments being purchased. (May)
    Marconi introduced the magnetic detector. (England) He was granted four U.S. patents (884,986 through 884,989) on this device. (25 June)
    Prof. R. A. Fessenden introduced the electrolytic detector.
    The National Electric Signaling Co. was formed by two Pittsburg entrepreneurs, Messrs. Hay Walker and Thomas Given, for the purpose of developing Fessenden's patents into a complete and saleable system.
    Stone Telephone & Telegraph Co. was incorporated to exploit the inventions of John Stone.
    Massie Wireless Telegraph Co. was formed under the direction of Mr. Walter Massie as both a manufacturing and operating organization.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Equipment, U.S. Navy, stated that it was not necessary that transmitters and receivers be of the same manufacture to provide radio communications.
    The Secretary of the Navy convened the Wireless Telegraph Board, Comdr. Conway H. Arnold, USN, senior member, to supervise trials and determine apparatus best suited to U.S. Navy requirements. (14 Aug.)
    Navy Department requested the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. of America, the Fessenden interests and Nikola Tesla to submit bids for the provision of radio equipments.
    Tests of European equipments conducted between Annapolis, Washington and U.S.S. Prairie and Topeka.
    The Wireless Telegraph Board submitted an interim report which pointed out the superiority of the Slaby-Arco equipment. (3 Dec.)
    The De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. delivered two sets of equipment for test. Neither Fessenden nor Tesla submitted equipments.


The International Wireless Co. was incorporated and absorbed the Consolidated Wireless Co. (Feb.)
    The U.S. Navy contracted for 20 Slaby-Arco equipments. (27 Mar.)
    The National Electric Signaling Co. (Fessenden) stated that no notification of Navy tests had been received by it.
    Fessenden patented the "Barretter," an electrolytic detector. (5 May)
    The Bureau of Equipment informed Fessenden of previous correspondence of which he claimed to be unaware. He was then again requested to submit bids, which was promptly done. Later, he proposed that he provide two sets at his company's expense for testing by the Navy Wireless Board. He was directed to contact the president of that Board.
    Fessenden withdrew his offers to provide equipment for tests, claimed that his patents were being infringed and that American radio manufacturers were being discriminated against by the U.S. Navy.
    Eight major ships of the U.S. Navy were fitted with radio. Five naval shore radio stations of the North Atlantic coast were placed in operation. (July)
    The U.S. Navy used radio for tactical purposes for the first time during the fall maneuvers.
    The First International Radio Conference convened in Berlin to draft a protocol for consideration by the participating governments as the basis of a future convention. One of the articles of the protocol required all coastal stations to accept radio messages regardless of system in which originated. The Marconi interests opposed this article. The U.S. delegates were the most active of all members. (Aug.)
    The Bureau of Equipment ordered an additional 25 sets of Slaby-Arco equipment. (10 Sept.)
    Marconi interests proposed providing equipment to the U.S. Navy for a fixed amount to be considered as "life rental" of equipment but refused to have the efficiency of its equipment judged by Navy tests.
    The SS Campania began publishing first daily shipboard newspaper from information and news items provided by radio.
    The Radio Division of the Bureau of Equipment was established under Lt. A. M. Beecher, USN.
    A radio school was established at the Brooklyn Navy Yard to provide electrician's mates instruction in radio operation and maintenance.
    De Forest was granted U.S. Patent 887,069 on a magnetic detector.
    "Instructions for the Use of Wireless Telegraph Apparatus" were prepared by Lt. J. M. Hudgins, USN, and issued the service.
    General Electric Co. constructed its first high-low frequency alternator based on specifications provided by Fessenden. This alternator had a frequency of 10 kc.
    The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. established. In another unsavory stock manipulation this company rented the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. for $500 per annum.
    Rear Adm. G. A. Converse, USN, became Chief of the Bureau of Equipment.
    Lt. J. M. Hudgins, USN, became Head of the Radio Division.


The American De Forest Co. absorbed the International Wireless Co. and cancelled stock in the latter company which was valued at $500,000 (Jan.)
    The London Times, using De Forest radio equipment, endeavored to provide first-hand news from the scene of action during Russo-Japanese hostilities.
    The De Forest interests exhibited radio at St. Louis World's Fair.
    Lt. J. L. Jayne, USN, became Head of the Radio Division.
    Harry Shoemaker, formerly of the International Wireless Co. and John Firth, one of the original backers of De Forest, formed the International Telephone & Telegraph Construction Co.
    In answer to Fessenden's claim that his patents were being infringed the Secretary of the Navy informed him that the Navy had no jurisdiction over infringement claims.
    Fessenden agreed to provide the U.S. Navy with radio equipment for tests, but only under protest. The Navy would not agree to test Fessenden's equipment unless the tests were conducted under the same conditions applied to other firms.
    John W. Griggs, former Attorney General of the United States, became president of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America. (28 Apr.)
    Fessenden agreed to supply two complete radio stations at a cost of one dollar, each.
    Rear Admiral Henry M. Manney, U.S. Navy, appointed Chief of the Bureau of Equipment.
    President Theodore Roosevelt appointed an interdepartmental board to consider the use of radio by the U.S. Government. (24 June)
    U.S. Navy requested bids from the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. and the National Electric Signaling Co. for four guaranteed long-distance stations to be constructed at San Juan, Puerto Rico, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Key West, Fla., and the Canal Zone. Contract awarded to the De Forest Co. (June)
    By this date 24 U.S. Naval vessels were fitted with radio and 19 naval shore radio stations had been established. (30 June)
    The Interdepartmental Board (Roosevelt Board) recommended that the U.S. Navy assume responsibility for all Government radio except that required by the Army. The latter was not to interfere with the Navy's coastal radio system. (12 July)
    American Marconi interests protested the Roosevelt Board's recommendations.
    Marconi interests again endeavored to persuade the U.S. Navy to accept a Marconi monopoly of radio. This was firmly refused. During this period the Navy reiterated the opinion that no radio station should be allowed on the coasts of the United States which would not accept messages from any properly tuned ship's apparatus, regardless of equipment used.
    President Roosevelt approved and directed implementation of the recommendations of the Interdepartmental Board. (29 July)
    U.S. Navy commenced daily transmissions of time signals. (9 Aug.) From this date it continued to expand and improve this service and until 1927 it remained the sole agency in the world making radio transmissions of this vitally important "Aid to Navigation."
    U.S. Navy tested National Electric Signaling Co. equipment and although it did not meet the promises of Fessenden, three sets were purchased.
    Lt. (later Rear Adm.) S. S. Robison, USN, became Head of the Radio Division.
    "Instruction for the Transmission of Messages by Wireless Telegraphy, U.S. Navy, 1904" were issued. These superseded instruction issued in 1903.
    The National Electric Signaling Co. protested the Government's actions in purchasing Slaby-Arco equipments, claiming that such action with the development of their system.
    The U.S. Navy issued instructions for all radio-equipped naval vessels to transmit meteorological data to U.S. Weather Bureau not less than once daily. (Nov.)
    Throughout the entire year Fessenden constantly berated the U.S. Navy with infringement claims and for redress in the matter of royalties.
    Prof. John Ambrose Fleming applied for British patent on the two electrode tube. (England)


The Navy Department and the Department of Commerce and Labor jointly drafted legislation for governmental supervision of commercial and amateur radio operations. This was strenuously opposed by American Marconi and National Electric Signaling Co. interests and was not transmitted to Congress. (Jan.)
    Fessenden apparatus installed on three major men-of-war. In tests it failed to satisfactorily meet naval needs.
    The U.S. Navy adopted the Continental Morse Code.
    The harsh 60-cycle emissions of the early transmitters softened by U.S. naval personnel increasing the number of segments of the mercury turbine interrupters to provide a 500-cycle note.
    American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. completed installation of equipment at the U.S. Naval Radio Station, Key West, Fla. (Mar.)
    Fleming granted U.S. Patent No. 803,684 on the two-electrode tube as a detector. (19 Apr.)
    Judge William K. Townsend, U.S. circuit court, rendered decision in favor of Marconi in a suit against De Forest for infringement of basic patents.
    The Wireless Telegraph Board ceased to function. Thereafter decisions as to type of equipments purchased were made by the Radio Division.
    A U.S. circuit court rendered decision in favor of National Electric Signaling Co. in suit against the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. for infringement of Fessenden's patent on the electrolytic detector. (Oct.)
    Tests of equipment provided by the Stone Telephone & Telegraph Co. completed and eight sets purchased by the Bureau of Equipment.
    Based upon the operational success of the equipment of the Massie Wireless Telegraph Co. 10 sets of their equipment were purchased by the U.S. Navy.
    The U.S. Navy purchased 21 sets of radio equipment manufactured by the International Telephone & Telegraph Construction Co.
    The U.S. Navy issued the first "International Radio Call Sign Book."
    American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. completed all the radio installations under its contract except the one at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. (Dec.)


U.S. Atlantic Fleet conducted exercises over large ocean areas in an endeavor to develop the strategical use of radio. These exercises were unsatisfactory because of short ranges of equipments and interference. The failure of these exercises caused senior naval officers to lose confidence in the reliability of this method of communications and set back its development for naval use for several years.
    American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. completed the installation of equipment at U.S. Naval Radio Station, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. (Mar.)
    The first disaster use of naval radio followed the San Francisco earthquake. The U.S.S. Chicago provided the only reliable means of rapid communication between the city and the outside world.
    The National Electric Signaling Co. protested Navy's purchase of electrolytic detectors from American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. claiming infringement. The Secretary of the Navy directed the purchasing authority to disregard the protest.
    Fessenden addressed a letter to President Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to have Secretary of the Navy Bonaparte removed from office. A copy of this letter bears Fessenden's notation. "No reply received."
    Lt. Robison prepared the "Manual of Wireless Telegraphy for Use of Naval Electricians." With revisions, it served as a standard textbook on the subject for the next two decades.
    Lt. Comdr. Cleland Davis, USN, became Head of the Radio Division.
    Fessenden continued to berate the Navy because it did not purchase National Electric Signaling Co. equipment. The Navy advised him that the excellent merit he claimed for his equipment was not sustained and that his bids were entirely too high.
    Direction finding equipment developed by John Stone Stone experimented with in the U.S.S. Lebanon. It was not successful because it necessitated swinging ship to obtain maximum signal intensity and because little was known of the deviation caused by closed electrical loops inherent in ship construction. (Sept.)
    Amateur and commercial radio interferences in the Boston area prevented transmission of messages to President Roosevelt in the U.S.S. Mayflower off Cape Cod, Mass. As a result of this the President directed the commander in chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Rear Adm. R. D. Evans, USN, to make recommendations for the control of radio transmissions.
    Second International Radio Conference convened in Berlin. Twenty-seven sovereign powers were represented. The U.S. delegation was headed by Ambassador Charlemagne Towers and consisted additionally of Rear Adm. Henry M. Manney, USN, (retired), Brig. James Allen, USA, Mr. Henry Waterbury and Comdr. F. M. Barber, USN (retired). (3 Oct.)
    De Forest applied for a U.S. patent on the three-element vacuum tube. (25 Oct.)
    The convention adopted by the Second International Radio Conference required compulsory handling of messages originating from or destined to ships, the compulsory handling of distress messages and the establishment of an international bureau at Berne for providing exchange of information. The efforts of the U.S. delegation were instrumental in the adoption of the first two mentioned articles. (3 Nov.)
    Max Wein devised a form of quenched gap for spark transmitters. (Germany)
    General H. C. Dunwoody, USA (retired), discovered the rectifying properties of carborundum crystals.
    John Greenleaf Pickard discovered the rectifying properties of silicon.
    By the end of this year many ships and shore radio stations of the U.S. Navy were fitted with composite radio equipments (transmitters and receivers of different manufacture).
    Fessenden transmitted speech from Brant Rock, Mass., which was received at Macrahanish, Scotland. He utilized a 500-cycle spark transmitter. (Nov.)
    The American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. obtained the controlling interest in and absorbed the International Telephone & Telegraph Construction Co.
    United Wireless Telegraph Co. was organized by Abraham White (Schwartz). The assets of the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Co. were transferred to the new company and De Forest was ousted, receiving $500 for his patents, excluding the three-element tube.
    The General Electric Co. built a high-power low-frequency alternator (80 kc.).
    Fessenden transmitted music and speech from Brant Rock, Mass., by means of the 80-kc. alternator provided by the General Electric Co. These transmissions were received by ships off the Virginia coast. (24 Dec.)
    The Stone Telephone & Telegraph Co. became insolvent.


De Forest applied for a U.S. patent on the three-element tube.
    De Forest obtained rights to John Stone Stone's tuned circuit patent.
    De Forest Radio Telephone Co. incorporated.
    Christopher Columbus Wilson ousted Abraham White from the United Wireless Co. and intensified the stock-peddling policy of the company.
    The U.S. Navy commenced transmitting hydrographic bulletins containing "Notices of Dangers to Mariners." (7 Aug.)
    De Forest radio telephone equipment tested in U.S.S. Connecticut and Virginia. (Sept.)
    The U.S. Navy contracted for 26 sets of De Forest radio telephone equipment for installation on ships of the "Great White Fleet" prior to their departure on their "Around the World Cruise." (Nov.)
    Arthur Korn transmitted a picture by landline from Berlin to Paris. (Germany)
    Boris Rosing and A. A. Campbell-Swinton separately and at about the same time published treatises on electrical transmission of pictures using electromagnetic scanning. (Russia-England)
    Crystal detectors came into general use, replacing electrolytic detectors and coherers.
    De Forest demonstrated radiotelephony between a ferry of the Lackawanna Railroad Co. and their Hoboken and New York City terminals.


While in port at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, U.S.S. Ohio broadcast music by radio.
    The Marconi interests began limited and unreliable commercial radio service between Glace Bay, Nova Scotia and Clifden, Ireland. (England)
    De Forest granted U.S. Patent No. 879,532, on the three-element vacuum tube. (8 Feb.)
    Rear Adm. R. D. Evans, USN, directed dismantling De Forest radio telephone equipments installed in "Great White Fleet" because they were being used improperly and because they interfered with normal radio communications. U.S.S. Ohio was allowed to retain its installation for experimental purposes. (Mar.)
    The first Alaskan radio expedition erected and placed in operation the U.S. Naval Station, Cordova, Alaska.
    The U.S.S. Connecticut en route from Hawaii to New Zealand, exchanged messages with U.S. Naval Radio Station, Point Loma, Calif., at a distance of 2,900 miles.
    The Bureau of Navigation promulgated a revision of the "U.S. Navy General Signal Book, 1898," which consisted of three parts: General Signals, which included a telegraphic dictionary; Tactical Signals; and Boat Signals. The use of the first-mentioned section was restricted to commissioned officers.
    A 20-kc. alternator with a power output of 2,500 watts was constructed by the General Electric Co.
    Poulsen developed an arc transmitter, the transmissions of which were received 150 miles away. (Denmark)
    The U.S. Navy purchased two arc transmitters and receivers from Poulsen of Denmark.
    The U.S. Senate failed to ratify the Berlin Convention of 1906.
    The U.S. Naval Radio Research Laboratory established under the direction of Dr. L. W. Austin.
    The first U.S. Navy civilian radio expert, George H. Clark, appointed. He was assigned duties as an assistant to Dr. Austin of the U.S. Naval Radio Research Laboratory and to the Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Equipment. (Aug.)
    The U.S. Naval Radio Research Laboratory conducted experiments with the Poulsen arc transmitter and "tikker receiver" and recommended against their use because of the inadequacy of the receiver. This delayed the U.S. Navy's adoption of continuous wave transmission for approximately 4 years.


The SS Republic collided with SS Florida off New York. Radioed calls for assistance resulted in keeping the loss of lives down to six persons and created such an impression upon the public that radio soon became looked upon as a seagoing necessity.
    The House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries favorably reported on a bill that would have required certain oceangoing vessels to be fitted with radio equipment manned by a capable operator. Congress failed to enact it into law. (Feb.)
    The U.S. Navy contracted with the National Electric Signaling Co. for delivery of one 100-kw. synchronous rotary spark transmitter for installation in a shore radio station and two 10-kw. sets of the same type for installation in the U.S.S. Salem and Birmingham. The contract required that the shore station transmission be received, day or night by a ship distant 3,000 miles and that the ship transmitters would cover a minimum distance of 1,000 miles by day or night. (May)
    Senator Frye introduced a bill into Senate requiring certain oceangoing vessels to be equipped with radio. (9 June)
    Portable radio apparatus successfully service tested in the U.S. Atlantic Fleet.
    The quenched spark gap, which energized the antenna circuit one or two impulses and then electrically opened the antenna circuit allowing the antenna to continue to oscillate at its own frequency, introduced in U.S. Navy in transmitters purchased from the Telefunken Co.
    Tests of the Fessenden 100-kw. transmitter installed at Brant Rock, Mass. and the 10-kw. transmitters in U.S.S. Salem and Birmingham were unsatisfactory. (Dec.)
    Congressman Roberts introduced a bill in the House which provided for the creation of a board of seven members, one each from the War, Navy and Treasury Departments, three from commercial interests and one unbiased scientist, to prepare, within 30 days of its organization, a comprehensive plan to govern the operation of all radio stations under the jurisdiction of the United States, giving due regard to all.


The Roberts Bill reported out favorably by the House Committee on Naval Affairs.
    Public Law 262 (Frye Bill), "The Radio Ship Act of 1910," passed the Senate and House and was approved to become effective on 1 July 1911. No further action was taken on the Roberts Bill.
    Congress enacted legislation providing that in the future, the owner of any invention covered by a U.S. patent might recover reasonable compensation from the Government whenever their patents might be used by the Government without their consent.
    Lt. Comdr. (later Rear Adm.) D. W. Todd, USN, relieved Lt. Comdr. Cleland Davis, USN, as Head of the Radio Division.
    The Bureau of Equipment was dissolved, and the responsibility for radio was assigned to the Bureau of Steam Engineering. Rear Adm. H. I. Cone, USN, was the first Chief of this Bureau. (30 June)
    Further tests of Fessenden 100-kw. and 10-kw. transmitters were conducted by the Navy. They failed to meet contract requirements.


R. A. Fessenden was dismissed from National Electric Signaling Co. He brought suit for breach of contract and was awarded damages amounting to $400,000. This forced the company into receivership. Prior to this, Fessenden had developed the heterodyne method of radio reception. He utilized a small arc transmitter to generate the local oscillations.
    The Radio Ship Act of 1910 became effective. The Radio Division of the Department of Commerce and Labor was established to enforce this law.
    Lack of Government supervision of radio activities resulted in increased chaotic conditions as Government, commercial, and amateur operators vied for use. Transmissions of vituperations, frivolities, and obscenities exceeded the time used for legitimate messages. The Department of Commerce and Labor could not legally cope with the situation.
    The Federal Telegraph Co. of Calif., was incorporated. It owned the U.S. rights to the Poulsen arc transmitter patents. (July)
    The Navy issued its first radiofrequency plan.
    De Forest's Radio Telephone Co. instituted a plea of bankruptcy. De Forest obtained employment with the Federal Telegraph Co. of Calif.
    The Alaskan radio expedition established temporary U.S. naval radio stations at Kodiak, Dutch Harbor, and St. Paul.
    The "Rules for Autumn Practice, 1911" required the use of radio for the tactical maneuvering of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet during battle practice.
    The U.S. Atlantic Fleet was unsuccessful in carrying out the radio provisions required by "Rules for Autumn Practice, 1911." As a result of this, it was recommended and approved that a radio officer be assigned the staff of the commander in chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. (Oct.)
    Adm. A. G. Winterhalter, USN, in the U.S.S. Washington, conducted experiments in ranging, using radio and sound. The latter included transmissions in air and under water. This was the first attempt to determine position acoustically, and indicated the vagaries of sound in air and proved the greater reliability of underwater sound.


F. A. Kolster developed a decremeter for the measurement of radiofrequencies.
    Submarine bell warning systems, developed by the Submarine Signal Co., had been installed at dangerous points of navigation along the coasts of the United States, Canada, the British Isles, France, Portugal, Italy, Brazil, Chile, and China. Numerous shipowners installed listening devices to receive the signals of these warning bells.
    The Marconi interests purchased the Bellini-Tosi patents, including those on direction finders. (England)
    Dr. Irving Langmuir developed a high-vacuum electronic tube to provide a pure electron discharge.
    Dr. H. D. Arnold concurred with Langmuir in the necessity of having a high vacuum in an electronic tube. He believed that the instability of the existent three-element tubes was caused by the ionization of enclosed gases.
    The U.S. Navy began providing postgraduate radio instruction for officers. Ens. (later Capt.) C. H. Maddox, USN, was registered at the Graduate School of Applied Science, Harvard University, where he studied under Prof. G. W. Pierce, one of the country's foremost radio engineers. (Feb.)
    The British Government, which had extended the United States an invitation to attend the Third International Radio Conference, withdrew its invitation because of our failure to ratify the Berlin Convention.
    The U.S. Senate ratified the Berlin Convention of 1906. This ratification was ably supported by Rear Adm. John R. Edwards, USN. (3 Apr.)
    Radio aided in reducing the loss of life in the S.S. Titanic disaster. This disaster indicated the necessity of maintaining a continuous radio watch at sea. (14 Apr.)
    The U.S. Navy was directed to use the term "radio" in lieu of "wireless."
    The U.S. Navy began experimenting with the use of radio in submarines. Communications were established off Newport, R.I., at a distance of 4 miles.
    The Institute of Radio Engineers was formed by combining the Society of Wireless Telegraph Engineers and the Wireless Institute. Robert H. Marriott, a civilian radio expert in the employ of the Navy, was its first presiding officer. (13 May)
    The Third International Radio Conference convened in London. The American delegation was headed by Rear Adm. John R. Edwards, USN. Other naval members were Lt. Comdr. D. W. Todd, USN, and Dr. L. W. Austin. (4 June)
    The temporary naval radio station, Kodiak, Alaska, was struck by lightning and destroyed.
    Construction was commenced on the naval radio station, Radio (Arlington), Virginia.
    The United Wireless Telegraph Co. was adjudged guilty of infringing Marconi patents. As a result, a bankruptcy petition was filed. Their assets, which included 400 ship installations and 17 shore radio stations, were acquired by Marconi interests.
    The Office of Superintendent of Naval Radio Service was established under the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation for the purpose of operating and administrating Government radio stations. Material and budgetary functions remained the responsibility of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. Capt. (later Rear Adm.) W. H. G. Bullard, USN, was assigned duty as the first superintendent.
    The Third International Radio Conference adopted a Convention which included regulations pertaining to safety of life at sea, most of which had been proposed by the U.S. delegation. (5 July)
    The U.S. Government extended an invitation to hold the Fourth International Radio Conference in Washington in 1917.
    Naval radio stations were opened to commercial traffic in all areas where commercial radio facilities were nonexistent or inadequate.
    Naval radio stations were modernized. The Wireless Apparatus Co.'s IP76 double-banked receivers, using Pickard's perikon detectors, were provided.
    R. A. Fessenden joined the staff of the Submarine Signal Co.
    The Radio Ship Act of 1910 was amended to require certain seagoing vessels to carry two operators, to install an adequate source of auxilliary power for radio equipment, and to extend its provisions to cover shipping on the Great Lakes.
    The Alaskan radio expedition of 1912, under command of Lt. E. H. Dodd, USN, established naval radio stations at Unalaga, St. George, Kodiak, and Cordova, and refitted the stations at St. Paul and Dutch Harbor.
    The Bourne bill was introduced in the Senate to provide legislation necessary for the Government to control the activities of commercial and amateur radio stations.
    S. 5334, a substitute for the Bourne bill, which reduced governmental authority and defined the controls over commercial and amateur stations was introduced. This bill was supported by Government officials, with Lt. Comdr. (later Rear Adm.) D. W. Todd, USN, as their spokesman, and was perfunctorily opposed by commercial and amateur interests.
    The Navy experimented with radio in aircraft, under the direction of Ens. (later Capt.) C. H. Maddox, USN, and succeeded in establishing communication, from a height of 300 feet, with the U.S.S. Stringham over a distance of 6,000 yards. The same aircraft also made contact with the U.S.S. Bailey and the naval radio station, Annapolis, Md.
    Congress passed S. 5334 and it became Public Law 264. (13 Aug.)
    Lt. (later Rear Adm.) Stanford C. Hooper, USN, was assigned duty on the staff of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet as Fleet Radio Officer. This was the first time that an officer had been designated specifically to advise a fleet commander on matters pertaining to radio. (16 Aug.)
    Congress appropriated funds for the erection of high-powered naval radio stations in the Canal Zone, on the west coast, in the Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Phillippines.
    All battleships, flagships of cruiser and gunboat divisions, and destroyer flotilla leaders were directed to appoint radio officers.
    Hooper succeeded in firmly establishing discipline and exercising control of radio circuits of the Atlantic Fleet.
    The Fessenden 100-kw. synchronous rotary spark transmitter was installed at the U.S. Naval Radio Station, Radio (Arlington), Virginia. (Dec.)
    The Federal Telegraph Co. installed a Poulsen 30-kw. arc transmitter at the U.S. Naval Radio Station, Radio (Arlington), Virginia, for comparative tests with the Fessenden 100-kw. synchronous rotary-gap spark transmitter.
    Radio competition was established between ships of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet.
    Public Law 264 became effective. (13 Dec.)
    The Tropical Radio Co., subsidiary of the United Fruit Co., purchased the controlling interest in the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Co.
    De Forest and several of the officers of the defunct Radio Telephone Co. were charged with using the mails to defraud, and were tried by the Federal Government. De Forest was acquitted.
    De Forest discovered that increased signal amplification could be obtained by connecting three-element tubes in cascade.
    John Hays Hammond, Jr., developed an automatic course stabilization device and a means of security of its control by radio.
    The Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, issued to his command a scouting cipher of the transposition type.
    George Clark and Guy Hill, U.S. Navy civilian radio experts, developed a quick frequency changer for radio transmitters.
    Tests conducted with the 30-kw. Poulsen arc transmitter indicated the possibility of its being superior to the 100-kw. synchronous rotary-spark transmitter.


The continued failure of radio equipment manufacturers to meet Navy specifications for ruggedness and reliability resulted in a Bureau of Steam Engineering decision to design and manufacture its own radio equipment.
    The Navy obtained rights to the Cohen capacity coupled receiver circuit and employed Dr. Louis Cohen as a consultant in receiver design. Additional radio engineers were employed, and the various navy yards were made responsible for the design and manufacture of specific components. (Feb.)
    The U.S. Naval Radio Station, Radio (Arlington), Virginia, was commissioned. (13 Feb.)
    Lt. Comdr. (later Adm.) A. J. Hepburn, USN, relieved Lt. Comdr. D. W. Todd, USN, as Head of the Radio Division.
    Lee DeForest formed the Radio Telephone & Telegraph Co.
    The United States and France cooperated using radio stations at Radio (Arlington), Virginia, and Eiffel Tower, Paris, to make longitude determinations and to procure data for comparing velocity of electromagnetic and light waves.
    The Navy Department issued the confidential registered "Battle Signal Book" of the U.S. Navy, 1913, which followed the same format as the "General Signal Book, U.S. Navy, 1908."
    Acceptance tests of the Fessenden 100-kw. synchronous rotary-spark transmitter conducted between the U.S.S. Salem and U.S. Naval Radio Station, Radio (Arlington), Virginia, proved the superiority of the 30-kw. Poulsen arc transmitter and Fessenden's heterodyne method of reception. The Fessenden 100-kw. transmitter failed to meet contract guarantees. (May)
    De Forest discovered that the three-element tube could be used as an oscillator.
    Sound equipment was installed, in one division of battleships of the Navy for experimental signaling purposes. Perfect signaling was carried on by this method with the division at anchor. When the method was tested with the division underway, the ship generated noises which interfered to the extent that further tests were abandoned.
    The Bureau of Steam Engineering stated its policy concerning radio patents, ". . . . it could not take cognizance of patents. It must have certain apparatus and must go on buying it from whomever can or will supply it until it is informed by the Department of justice or some other authority that we must stop it." However, Navy contracts for radio equipment continued to carry a clause requiring supplying firms to protect the Government against patent infringement actions. (20 May)
    Difficulty in communicating with U.S. Atlantic Fleet units off Veracruz, Mexico, pointed out the inadequacy of the naval radio system from a military standpoint and the lack of security of transmitted information.
    A revision to the 1913 "Battle Signal Book" was issued which provided for enciphering code groups.
    Edwin H. Armstrong filed patent application on the regenerative circuit. (29 Oct.)
    Radio received major consideration at the Safety at Sea Conference held in London. (12 Nov.)
    Ten three-element vacuum tube amplifiers were purchased by the U.S. Navy from the DeForest Radio Telephone & Telegraph Co.
    The U.S. Navy accepted the 100-kw. Fessenden transmitter, settlement being effected by compromise.
    Bellini-Tosi direction finder equipment was installed and tested in the U.S.S. Wyoming with disappointing results. It was removed and installed at Cape Cod, Mass. for further tests ashore.


The Service Radio Code of the U.S. Navy was promulgated for the use of radio operators. It was not intended as a security system but was used as such during the Veracruz incident. (10 Feb.)
    De Forest filed application for a U.S. patent on a feedback circuit similar to one filed by Armstrong months earlier. (Mar.)
    De Forest exhibited a radio receiver developed by him which utilized a three-element vacuum tube as an oscillator. This could be used to provide the locally generated continuous waves required for heterodyne receiving. (Apr.)
    The Naval Radio Station, Darien, C.Z., fitted with a 100-kw. arc transmitter, was commissioned. This was the first station of the high-powered chain. (1 July)
    German men-of-war off Veracruz, notified of England's entrance into World War I by an apparently innocuous commercial message, managed to put to sea before the British commander became aware of the situation. (2 Aug.)
    President Wilson issued a proclamation which prohibited the handling of messages on nonneutral character by radio stations within the jurisdiction of the United States. The Secretary of the Navy was made responsible for its enforcement, and he delegated this responsibility to the Superintendent of the Naval Radio Service. (5 Aug.)
    The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America questioned the validity of censorship instructions placed into effect by the Navy. (12 Aug.)
    The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America radio station at Siasconsett, Mass.,ignored censorship and rendered nonneutral service to a British cruiser. The station was closed by the Navy. (Sept.)
    Hooper was ordered to Europe as an observer of radio usage in the war zone.
    The high-powered radio station at Tuckerton, N.J., ownership of which was disputed between belligerent nationals, was taken over and operated by the Navy, at the direction of the President. (9 Sept.)
    The Navy tested the Hammond system of remote radio control of moving objects.
    A 30-kw. arc transmitter was installed at the radio station operated by the Navy at Tuckerton, N.J.
    The Secretary of the Navy convened a board to review naval communications requirements and to make recommendations to bring the Naval Radio Service up to a satisfactory state-of-war readiness. (6 Dec.)
    The Radio Test Shop, Washington Navy Yard, was charged with the task of originating means of and developing apparatus for radio reception.
    The Radio Test Shop, Washington Navy Yard, redesigned the De Forest audiofrequency amplifiers and began manufacture of two-stage amplifiers, designated SE 1000.
    R. A. Fessenden of the Submarine Signal Co. developed an underwater oscillator which served both as a transmitter and receiver. He patented the method in the belief that signals emitted by the oscillator and reflected by submerged objects could be used to measure distance.
    The first cross-licensing agreement of U.S. radio patents was consummated between Marconi interests and the National Electric Signaling Co. The Marconi interests paid the latter almost $300,000 in royalties for previous infringements. This reflected their failure to maintain adequate research and to maintain their equipments up to date.
    The Radio Telephone & Telegraph Co. (De Forest) sold radio rights to the three-element tube to the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. for $90,000. De Forest retained limited rights to manufacture tubes for amateur and experimental purposes. Arnold and Langmuir completed its development and application as a repeater for longdistance telephony.


Hooper completed his duty as radio observer in Europe and returned to the United States under orders as the Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering.
    Mr. Hiram Percy Maxim organized the amateur radio association, the American Radio Relay League. (Jan.)
    Congress authorized an additional half million dollars for the construction of high-powered naval radio stations. (3 Mar.)
    Hooper became Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering. (Apr.)
    The British Marconi Co. opened negotiations with the General Electric Co. for the exclusive use of the Alexanderson alternator. These negotiations failed because of the wartime pressure on British foreign exchange. (May)
    The American Telephone & Telegraph Co. began tests of long-distance radio voice communications from Radio (Arlington), Virginia, with the cooperation of the Naval Radio Service. (15 June)
    The Navy obtained the American Telephone & Telegraph Co.'s method of providing a feedback circuit to make an associated vacuum tube oscillate. This method was incorporated in receivers being designed at the Washington Navy Yard.
    Navy receivers, Types A (60-600 kc.), B (30-300 kc., and C (1200-3000 kc.) were designed by Dr. Louis Cohen with the assistance of Messrs. George C. Clark and L. C. Butts and placed in production at the Washington Navy Yard.
    The German-owned and unlicensed station at Sayville, Long Island, suspected of rendering nonneutral service, was taken over by the Navy for the purpose of providing an additional transatlantic radio circuit. (9 July)
    Voice communications transmitted by the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. from Radio (Arlington), Virginia, were received at Darien, C.Z., Mare Island, Honolulu and Paris. (Oct.)
    The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America sought an injunction against Emil J. Simon to prevent his use of the Marconi four-circuit tuning patent in equipment sold by him to the Navy. Simon contended that the Government was liable under the act of 5 June 1910. His contention was upheld.
    The Naval Consulting Board of the United States was organized under the chairmanship of Mr. Thomas Alva Edison. (2 Oct.)
    The U.S. States Department refused to assist the American Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. in their efforts to obtain concessions from South American countries for the purpose of extending radio communications to those countries. (4 Nov.)
    Navy Type A 1917, receiver was designed by the Radio Test Shop, Washington Navy Yard.
    Dr. Peter Cooper Hewitt and Mr. Elmer A. Sperry commenced developing a gyro-stabilization system for pilotless flying bombs. The cost of this development became excessive, and upon their request the Naval Consulting Board of the United States gave the project favorable consideration.
    The Navy commenced broadcasting hydrographic and meteorological bulletins, covering west coast waters, from U.S. Naval Radio Station, Mare Island, Calif.
    Thirty kw. arc transmitters were installed at naval radio stations at Boston, Mass.; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Great Lakes, Ill.; San Juan, P.R.; and Cordova, Alaska.
    Congress established the Chief of Naval Operations as the senior military command over all Navy activities. Cognizance of the operations of the Naval Radio Service was transferred from the Bureau of Navigation to the Chief of Naval Operations. Maintenance and budgetary responsibility remained with the Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering.
    Dr. F. A. Kolster of the Bureau of Standards developed a rotating coil direction finder.


The Superintendent of Naval Radio Service took the initial step in organizing the U.S. Naval Communication Reserve. Members of the American Radio Relay League and commercial operators formed the nucleus of this organization.
    Two sets of Bellini-Tosi radio direction finder equipment were purchased under guarantee from the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America. The tests were unsatisfactory and the equipments were returned to the contractor.
    Mr. William Dubilier submitted mica condensers to the Navy for test. These proved unsatisfactory but resulted in the Navy drawing up specifications for a condenser of this type. Dubilier was successful in meeting these specifications.
    The Navy began using the world's first remote radio receiving and transmitter control station, in the old State, War, and Navy Building, Washington.
    The U.S. Naval Radio Station, Chollas Heights (San Diego), Calif., equipped with a 200-kw. arc transmitter, was commissioned. (1 May)
    A 48-hour mobilization of U.S. communications began, with the cooperation of the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. Using combined radio and landlines the Captain of the U.S.S. New Hampshire, off the Virginia Capes, conducted two-way conversations with the Secretary of the Navy in Washington and the Commandant of the Navy Yard at Mare Island, Calif. (6 May)
    The Navy purchased two experimental radiotelephone equipments from the Western Electric Co. for installation in battleships. They provided satisfactory two-way telephone communications up to the distances of 30 miles, but were deemed undesirable because they utilized the same frequencies as regular radio communication.
    The Navy secured exclusive rights to the Kolster radio direction finder patents for a period of 2 years.
    The British radio direction finder network detected the sortie of the German Fleet from Wilhelmshaven to the North Sea. This enabled the British Grand Fleet to meet and engage them at the Battle of Jutland. (30 May)
    The Fortifications Appropriation Bill provided funds for tests of and for the exclusive procurement of the Hammond system of remote radio control.
    U.S. Naval General Order 236 directed the establishment of the Naval Communication Service headed by a director under the Chief of Naval Operations. Capt. (later Rear Adm.) W. H. G. Bullard, USN, was the first director. (28 July)
    The League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa., was directed to manufacture 30 direction finders of the Kolster type and to conduct experiments for developing this apparatus for fitting into aircraft.
    The Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory was established at Pensacola, Fla., for the purpose of testing, developing, and fitting aircraft radio equipment.
    A joint Army-Navy Board was established to supervise the tests of the Hammond system of radio control. The Navy members were Capt. John A. Hoogerwerff, Comdr. David W. Todd, and Lt. Joseph Ogan, USN. (25 Aug.)
    The U.S. Navy in cooperation with the French Government completed the determination of the difference in longitude between Paris and Washington by radio. Measured in terms of time, with a probable accuracy within 0.01 second, this was 5 hours, 17 minutes and 35.67 seconds.
    Lt. T. S. Wilkinson, USN, witnessed tests of an aircraft controlled by a Sperry stabilization and course-keeping system. His report stated that the aircraft could not be controlled with the degree of accuracy required to hit a moving target and recommended that the Army might find it useful against military targets.
    Decision was rendered that both Marconi and De Forest interests infringed each other in the manufacture of three-element tubes.
    U.S. Navy commissioned its new high-powered radio station at Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii. This station was equipped with a 300-kw, arc transmitter. (1 Oct.)
    Navy Type B, 1917 receiver was designed.
    Congress appropriated funds for the construction of the Naval Research Laboratory.
    Transpacific commercial radio circuit was opened to traffic. (5 Nov.)
    De Forest experimental station was opened at Highbridge, N.Y., and broadcasted election bulletins which were received within a radius of 200 miles.
    Station at New Rochelle, N.Y. operated by Messrs. Charles V. Logwood and George C. Cannon commenced broadcasting music one hour daily, except Sunday. (Nov.)
    U.S. Department of Commerce held informal hearings on an Interdepartmental Radio Committee draft of legislation which materially increased, governmental control over radio. It was opposed by the Marconi interests. (21 Nov.)
    The Navy installed a 60-kw. arc transmitter at Radio (Arlington), Virginia, which had been removed from the Tuckerton radio station.
    Personnel of the Radio Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering, investigated the underground antenna system of Dr. J. H. Rogers, and noted the increase in the ratio between signal and noise and the better directivity of the system.
    U.S. Navy commissioned its new high-powered radio station at Cavite, P.I. It was equipped with a 300-kw. arc transmitter. This completed the construction of the high-powered chain. (19 Dec.)
    Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, openly advocated the elimination of commercial interests from ship-shore radio operations.
    Twelve radio direction finder equipments were placed under construction for installation along the Atlantic seaboard.
    Navy receivers, Types A, B, and C were installed in ships and shore radio stations.
    The Navy began standardization of radio components by assignment of type numbers.


Hearings on proposed Interdepartmental radio legislation, which had been introduced in the House by Congressman Alexander, began before the House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.
    Three sets of reliable radiotelephone equipment, employing frequencies above those normally used for naval radio communications and capable of providing nine simultaneous voice channels, were purchased from the Western Electric Co. and installed in battleships.
    Class 4, U.S. Naval Reserve was created. This was the official beginning of the U.S. Naval Communications Reserve.
    The Bureau of Steam Engineering contracted with the Western Electric Co. for 15 sets of radiotelephone transceivers for experimental purpose in connection with the submarine chaser program. This equipment was assigned the Navy type number CW 936 and was the forerunner of the modern vacuum tube transmitter.
    Lt. A. Hoyt Taylor, USNR, district communication officer, Ninth Naval District, was directed to establish a temporary laboratory and conduct investigations of submerged antenna systems. From these it was determined that antennas submerged in fresh water gave signals 10 times stronger than those of the same type laid underground; that these submerged antenna were periodic and could be utilized for multiple reception; and that an antenna of length equal to one-eighth of a wavelength gave the best response.
    The Naval Consulting Board of the United States established a Special Problems Committee. Because of the German submarine menace a sub-committee of this Committee was established to conduct research on submarine detection by sound.
    The Submarine Signal Co. proffered its complete facilities to assist the Navy in the development of submarine sound detection systems. This offer was accepted. (28 Feb.)
    A comprehensive system of landlines connecting local activities with Naval District Headquarters and connecting the latter with the Navy Department was leased, to make available more frequencies for mobile and transatlantic uses and to reduce interference with those uses.
    The General Electric Co. and the Western Electric Co. agreed to work with the Submarine Signal Co. in the development of submarine sound detection systems. The latter company agreed to make a study of the disturbances given off by submarines and other disturbances of a similar nature which might be encountered.
    Navy types SE 95 (300-3000 kc.) and SE 143 (100-100 kc.) receivers were designed under the direction of Lt. W. A. Eaton, USN, with the consultant services of Prof. L. A. Hazeltine, developer of the neutrodyne method of radio reception.
    At this time over 25 percent of the radio equipment of the U.S. Navy was of naval design. (1 Apr.)
    An underwater sound experimental station staffed by personnel of the Submarine Signal Co., the General Electric Co., and the Western Electric Co. was established at Nahant, Mass.
    Shortly after 1 p.m., simultaneously with the President's signing the resolution declaring the existence of a state of war with Germany, the U.S. Naval Communication System broadcasted to the world that the United States had entered World War I. (6 Apr.)
    All amateur and commercial radio stations were either closed or taken over by the Navy. (7 Apr.)
    An Alexanderson 50-kw. alternator was installed in the former Marconi stations at New Brunswick, N.J. The original purpose of this installation was to compare it with the Marconi timed-spark transmitter.
    Three-element vacuum tubes manufactured by De Forest Co. were so inferior in quality that about 90 per cent of an order for 2,000 were rejected.
    The Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels, appointed a board of naval officers for the purpose of procuring suitable apparatus for conducting both offensive and defensive operations against submarines. This board, known as the Special Board on Antisubmarine Devices, was provided with the services of several consultants experienced in underwater sound. (11 May)
    The Secretary of the Navy approved the recommendation of the Naval Consulting Board of the United States, which recommended that the Navy conduct experimental work on automatically controlled aircraft, carrying explosives, capable of being catapulted, and thereafter controlled by radio from the ground or a remotely flying airplane. (22 May)
    Dr. L. W. Austin, Director, Naval Radio Research Laboratory, devised an antenna system which made it possible to obtain unidirectional bearings with a radio direction finder.
    Prewar differences in operating missions resulted in the U.S. and Royal Navies having incompatible radio equipments. The Royal Navy had highly selective but insensitive receivers, while the U.S. Navy receivers were the exact opposite. This necessitated the installation of British equipment in many U.S. men-of-war operating with the British Grand Fleet.
    Lack of security consciousness and failure to develop satisfactory codes and ciphers made it necessary for the U.S. Navy to adopt Allied (British) security systems during the war.
    The National Research Council convened a meeting of Allied scientists for the purpose of discussing all previously developed means of detection of underwater sounds. (1 June)
    The Special Board on Antisubmarine Devices was organized, and plans were drawn up for the coordination of all activities concerning underwater sound detection. Acting upon a recommendation of the National Research Council, additional groups of scientists were formed, each group being assigned research in specified areas of underwater sound detection.
    The NCB, Mark I cipher box, designed by Lt. Comdr. (later Rear Adm.) Russel Wilson, USN, was issued to the naval service.
    The Pan-American Radio Co. was formed by the British and American Marconi companies and the Federal Telegraph Co. for the purpose of exploiting radio communications in South American countries.
    Comdr. B. B. McCormick, USN, reported as Naval Inspector of Ordnance at the plant of the Sperry Gyroscope Co., to provide naval supervision over a contract with that company to develop naval seaplanes into pilotless missiles. (15 June)
    Lt. Comdr. H. P. LeClair, USN, became Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering.
    Messrs. Given and Walker organized the International Signal Co., to which they transferred the patent assets of the National Electric Signaling Co.
    Prof. M. Mason proposed the development of the MV-tube underwater sound detection equipment.
    The Director of Naval Communications was assigned additional duty as Chief Cable Censor. (26 July)
    Schools for the training of radiomen were established at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., and Navy Yard, Mare Island, Calif. The two schools had a combined capacity for training 5,000 men.
    The Allied Transatlantic Communication Conference held in New London, Conn., decided to augment radio communications between the United States and Europe by constructing two additional high-powered stations in the United States and one in France.
    The New London group of scientists which had been conducting research in binaural methods of submarine sound detection, was augmented and redesignated the Naval Experimental Station. This station was assigned the additional function of service testing all development of underwater sound detection equipment.
    The Navy Department requested the General Electric Co. to provide a higher powered alternator for the transmitting station at New Brunswick, N.J. They replied that a 200-kw. alternator would be available by 1 January 1918. (1 Oct.)
    Lt. A. Hoyt Taylor was assigned duty as Transatlantic Communication Officer in command of the reactivated former Marconi receiving station at Belmar, N.J. He was directed to utilize the information gained by his underwater underground experiments to improve the efficiency of transatlantic reception.
    Lt. E. H. Loftin, District Communication Officer, Eighth Naval District, was directed to utilize the knowledge obtained by Taylor for the purpose of duplexing the Naval Radio Station, New Orleans, La., without locating the transmitters remote from receiving equipment.
    The Code and Signal Section became a branch of the Naval Communications System. (Dec.)
    Numerous acoustical devices were developed for underwater sound detection, none of which were too reliable. All required either to be towed or to have the detecting vessel stop in order to listen. However, most of the U.S. Navy destroyers and submarine chasers were equipped with listening equipment, mostly of the MV-tube type.


Naval Aircraft Laboratory was moved from Pensacola, Fla., to the Naval Air Station, Hampton Roads, Va. (1 Jan.)
    President Wilson's Fourteen Points were broadcast by the New Brunswick, N.J., station and were received at the German station at Nauen. (8 Jan.)
    The Director Naval Communications was made responsible for the collection and dissemination of information about movements of ships. (10 Jan.)
    The Navy purchased the German-owned radio patents seized by the Alien Enemy Property Custodian.
    The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America advised the Navy Department of the plans of the Pan-American Radio Co. for developing radio communications in South American countries. Assurances were given by the Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering, that the Secretary of the Navy understood and would not interfere with the proposed plans.
    The Bureau of Yards and Docks was assigned the responsibility of providing and maintaining local telephone facilities with naval yards and stations, and for providing lines and facilities for connecting them to the nearest commercial exchange. The Naval Communications Service was made responsible for provision of long lines and the operation and administration of all telephone facilities.
    The U.S. Supreme Court reversed a decision of September 1915, which had held the Government liable for patent infringement of equipment purchased by it. (4 Mar.)
    The first successful flight of a pilotless aircraft was achieved. It was launched by the impulse-type catapult, after which it climbed steadily and flew in a straight line for 1,000 yards, at which distance the automatic distance gear was set to cut the throttle.
    Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, issued the so-called "Farragut Letter," accepting certain responsibilities on the part of the Government for the protection of contractors against patent infringement suits. (29 Mar.)
    The amateur station of Ens. (later Lt.) A. Fabbri, USNR, at Bar Harbor, Mane, was leased by the Navy for use as a transatlantic receiver station. Because of its location it proved the most efficient station for this purpose. It was equipped with a "blind-end" loop antenna system designed by Mr. E. A. Proctor of the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Co.
    The Navy acquired the patents of the Federal Telegraph Co. and their three high-power and five coastal radio stations for $1,600,000 (15 May)
    Mr. Carl L. Norden was directed to construct two flywheel-powered catapults for the purpose of launching pilotless flying missiles.
    Construction of the Lafayette transmitter station at Croix dé Hins, France, was commenced by the U.S. Navy. (28 May)
    Sites were selected for installation of radio direction finder stations at the entrances to the principal U.S. Atlantic seaports.
    The Navy installed the General Electric 200-kw. Alexanderson alternator at the Naval Radio Station, New Brunswick, N.J., making it the world's most powerful transmitting station. (June)
    Two transatlantic cables were severed by the Germans 60 miles east of Sandy Hook, N.J. (4 June)
    A 200-kw. arc transmitter was placed in service at the transmitting station at Sayville, Long Island.
    Congress enacted legislation, clarifying the act of 25 June 1910, making the Government responsible to patent owners in the event it manufactured or procured equipment infringing patents. (1 July)
    After completing arrangements with several South American countries, the Pan-American Co. discovered that the Secretary of the Navy was determined to use a naval radio station at the U.S. terminal of South American radio circuits. No further effort was made at the time by that company to establish these circuits.
    Receiving of transatlantic circuits was centered at Bar Harbor, Maine, from where traffic was automatically relayed to Washington where the messages were copied. All transmitters on transatlantic circuits were keyed from Washington beginning at this time.
    A site was selected at Monroe, N.C., for a high-powered transmitting station.
    Cmdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, became Head of the Radio and Sound Division, Bureau of Steam Engineering. (Aug.)
    Dr. L. W. Austin, Director of the Naval Radio Research Laboratory, developed several balanced circuits, one of which could be used for the simultaneous reception of signals from several different transmitting stations provided they used separated frequencies.
    The Hammond system of radio control was demonstrated in Hampton Roads, Va. In these demonstrations the steering functions, the engines, and mine-setting operations of a moving surface vessel were controlled from a shore station and from an aeroplane. (23 Aug.)
    A hydrophone school was established at New London, Conn., to train officers in the installation and maintenance of underwater sound detection equipment.
    Lt. Comdr. A. Hoyt Taylor became the Director of the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory. (Sept.)
    The Naval Radio Station, Annapolis, Md., was commissioned. It was equipped with a 300-kw. arc transmitter. (Sept.)
    President Wilson's address launching the Fourth Liberty Loan campaign was broadcast from New Brunswick, N.J., and receipted for by the German station at Nauen. (17 Sept.)
    A successful launching of a pilotless aircraft was made but lack of ruggedness and instability of the plane caused it to crash. (23 Sept.)
    The German Government transmitted from Nauen, addressed to the Director, Naval Communications, its acceptance of Allied terms for an armistice. This was received in Washington and immediately delivered to the White House. (12 Oct.)
    The successful launching of a pilotless aircraft was followed by sustained flight at 4,000 feet about two degrees off the preset course. The distance mechanism, set for about 7 miles, failed to function and the plane flew out of sight to the eastward over the Atlantic. (17 Oct.)
    Norden recommended better designed planes, and a redesigning of the automatic control system to permit carry a human check pilot during further development of pilotless aircraft.
    The Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory was moved from Hampton Roads, Va., to the Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D.C.
    The joint board reporting on the Hammond tests on 23 August stated that he had not demonstrated control of a submerged carrier (torpedo).
    A contract was signed for two 1,000-kw. transmitters to be installed in the transmitting station at Monroe, N.C. (1 Nov.)
    The Navy purchased all shipboard and shore station installations of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America for the U.S. Government except those used for transoceanic communications.
    An armistice was signed with the German Government. (11 Nov.)
    The construction of the Lafayette transmitting station was halted. (1 Dec.)
    The proposal to construct a high-powered transmitting station at Monroe, N.C., was abandoned.
    Representative Alexander introduced a resolution in Congress which proposed giving the Navy Department exclusive ownership of all present and future commercial radio stations in the United States.
    Three radio direction finder stations were established around the entrance to New York Harbor and began coordinated operations to provide fixes for vessels in that vicinity. (26 Dec.)
    The Navy experimented with low-frequency underwater reception and discovered that a submarine could receive high-powered transmissions over long distances when submerged to a depth of 21 feet.
    The first air navigation range system was installed by the Navy.
    With the exception of the Navy Experimental Station, New London, Conn., all the underwater sound detection groups and training schools established during the war were abolished. Dr. H. C. Hayes became the head of the remaining activity which was considerably decreased in size and limited in functions.


The vigorous opposition of commercial interests resulting in the House Merchant Marine Committee unanimously tabling the Alexander Resolution. See 1917.
    The Radio Test Shop designed the SE 1420 (40-1250 kc.) receiver. This was thoroughly shielded and was the first radio receiver built with an amplifier as an integral part of the set.
    Reception of transatlantic signals were sufficiently reliable to permit closing the Belmar, N.J. receiver station.
    The Marconi interests renewed their efforts to procure exclusive use of the Alexanderson alternator. This was opposed by the Navy and Comdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, was successful in delaying the consummation of this transaction. (2 Feb.)
    The Fortification Appropriation Act provided funds for further demonstrations and possible purchase of the Hammond system of remote radio control torpedoes or other underwater carriers of high explosives. (3 Mar.)
    Rear Adm. W. H. G. Bullard, USN, again became Director of Naval Communications. (31 Mar.)
    Dr. H. C. Hayes discovered that the MV-tube set could be used for measuring the angle of reflection of transmitted signals echoed from the ocean floor. This permitted its use as a depth finder.
    A conference between General Electric Co. officials Bullard and Hooper, resulted in the decision by the former to discontinue negotiation with the Marconi interests for the sale of Alexanderson alternators. (18 Apr.)
    General Electric Co. officials reached the decision to establish an international communication system, provided the support of the U.S. Government could be obtained to provided them a monopoly in this field. Navy officials agreed to endeavor to obtain the desired support and aided in drafting a proposed charter for the new company.
    The Secretary of the Navy directed that action on the proposed charter giving the General Electric Co. a monopoly of radio communications in the United States be held in abeyance.
    Construction of the Lafayette transmitting station was resumed. (4 May)
    Owen D Young suggested that the officials of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America and the Pan-American Radio Co. join with the General Electric Co. in forming an American-controlled radio operating company.
    A flight of three U.S. Navy NC planes departed Trepassey, Newfoundland, on a transatlantic flight. They were fitted with radio equipment especially configured to the planes. (16 May)
    The Navy plane NC-4 arrived at Horta, Fayal, Azores. The other planes made forced landings short of the Azores; one sank, and another made Ponta Delgado but proceeded no further. Radio communications were maintained with U.S. Naval radio stations or with ships stationed along the path of the flight for the entire trip. (17 May)
    The NC-4, arrived at Lisbon, Portugal. Lt. Comdr. A. C. Reed, USN, completing the first Atlantic crossing by an airplane. Due to compass casualty the flight from the Azores to Portugal was made possible only by homing on the destroyers stationed along the plane's path with the direction finder. Ens. H. C. Rodd, USNR, acted as radio operator of the NC-4. (27 May)
    The pilotless aircraft missile program was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Va., under the supervision of Capt. T. T. Craven, USN, with Mr. Carl L. Norden as consultant. (27 May)
    The Secretary of the Navy deferred decision to enlist Government aid in support of an American controlled radio operating company.
    General Electric Co. officials reached the decision to form an American operating company, free of foreign control, with or without obtaining a Government monopoly.
    The sole remaining supporter of Government ownership of United States radio stations was Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels. (1 July)
    During fiscal year 1919, the U.S. Naval Communication System, exclusive of fleet communications, handled 1,189,120 dispatches containing text amounting to 71,347,860 groups.
    The first Presidential radio broadcast was made by President Wilson returning from France in the U.S.S. George Washington. His address to the crew was indistinctly received on the northeastern seaboard on 2380 kc. (4 July)
    The President, by Executive order, directed the Navy to return commercially owned radio stations as of midnight, 29 February 1920. (1 July)
    The Secretary of the Navy transmitted to Congress the text of a proposed bill which would authorize the Navy to use its stations for commercial traffic.
    The Secretary of the Navy transmitted a proposal to Congress recommending that ship-shore and transocean radio circuits be made a Government monopoly under the Navy and that all naval radio stations be opened to commercial and press traffic.
    Mr. E. J. Nally of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America and Mr. A. G. Davis of the General Electric Co. were sent to England to purchase British-owned interests in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America.
    The U.S.S. Ohio was assigned to the Bureau of Engineering as an experimental ship for the development of new radio equipments and installations.
    The General Electric Co. obtained the controlling interest in the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America by the purchase of 364,826 shares of stock.
    The Navy laid a radio-piloting cable in Ambrose Channel at the entrance to New York Harbor.
    The U.S.S. Semmes conducted tests of the radiopiloting cable laid in Ambrose Channel. It was demonstrated that such a system could be used to permit navigation in restricted waters during periods of low visibility. Following the tests the project was turned over to the Department of Commerce, which took no further action. (6-9 Oct.)
    The Radio Corp. of America was incorporated. The articles of incorporation prohibited the election of a director or officer who was not a citizen of the United States and allowed such participation by the Government in the administration of its affairs as the directors might deem advisable. Not more than 20 percent of the stock could be owned and voted by aliens. Mr. Owen D Young was elected chairman of the board of directors, Mr. E. J. Nally, president and Mr. David Sarnoff, managing director. (17 Oct.)
    Norden recommended the pilotless-aircraft missile project be expanded to include the use of obsolete planes as antiaircraft targets (drones).
    The Radio Corp. of America began operations. The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America ceased operations. (20 Nov.)
    The General Electric Co. and the Radio Corp. of America signed a cross-licensing agreement. The latter company was prohibited from manufacturing radio equipment but became the sales agent for General Electric radio equipment. (20 Nov.)
    The joint Army-Navy Radio Control Board recommended that the proper naval weapon using the Hammond system of radio control should be a standard naval torpedo with an added midsection to house the radio control equipment.
    The Radio Test Shop, Washington Navy Yard, designed the SE 1440 receiver for use with direction finding equipment. It was the first receiver in which the audiofrequency amplifying circuit was an integral part. Following this, the same facility designed multiple-stage amplifiers, consisting of three stages of radiofrequency amplification followed by a detector stage and then two stages of audiofrequency amplification, in order to provide the necessary amplification for aircraft reception and direction finding.
    The Bureau of Steam Engineering made the decision to make no further purchase of arc or spark equipments and to concentrate on the development of satisfactory vacuum tube transmitters.
    The Navy developed an antenna sleet melting system for installation in its stations in subfreezing areas.
    The Navy first established air-to-ground voice communications by radio.
    By the end of 1919 the U.S. Navy was equipped with receiving equipment vastly superior to that of other navies or commercial users.
    The commercial companies, seeing no future requirements for vacuum tube transmitters, refused to continue their development. Late in the year, the Bureau of Steam Engineering decided to expend a quarter of a million dollars to continue development of this type of transmitter.
    A fleet communication plan, entitled "The Force Tune System" was developed and adopted. This required an increase in shipboard radio installations and simultaneous reception and transmission.

    The Bureau of Steam Engineering addressed similar letters to the American Telephone & Telegraph Co. and the General Electric Co. requesting they make some arrangement between themselves which would permit the manufacture and further development of the three-element tube. (5 Jan.)
    Following the request of the directors of the Radio Corp. of America that a naval officer above the rank of captain be appointed to attend their meetings to present the Government's views, Rear Adm. W. H. G. Bullard, USN, Director of Naval Communications, was assigned this additional duty by direction of President Wilson. (14 Jan.)
    The Bureau of Steam Engineering resorted to temporary improved installations of existing radio receiving equipments which were given the designation models E, F and R. Models E and F included an acceptor-rejector circuit. To reduce interference, the motor buzzer set was adopted as a substitute for the spark gap for low-powered transmissions.
    In anticipation of a satisfactory patent cross-licensing agreement between three-element tube manufacturers, and in an effort to standardize and obtain improved tubes at a lower cost, the Bureau of Steam Engineering convened a conference of naval radio engineers and commercial manufacturer's representatives. (30 Jan.)
    The U.S.S. Breckinridge ran a line of sonic soundings from Charleston, S.C., to Key West, Fla., using the MV-tube equipment and Hayes' angle of reflection method.
    Contracts were made with the General Electric Co. for 20 model TC transmitters for battleships and 15 model TD transmitters for naval air stations. Another contract was made with the Western Electric Co. for 20 model TB voice modulated transmitters for installation in battleships for gunfire control communication.
    The Navy returned the commercially owned radio stations, taken over at the beginning of the war, to the Radio Corp. of America, which resumed commercial operations of them on the same day. (1 Mar.)
    The U.S.S. Ohio was assigned the tasks of developing improved and below deck radio installations in ships; improvements in and multiple use of antennas; service tests of new equipments; and development of a remote radio control system for surface ships.
    The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. purchased a controlling interest in the Fessenden radio patents. (22 May)
    The title of the Bureau of Steam Engineering was changed to Bureau of Engineering. (4 June)
    Congress authorized the use of naval radio stations for 2 years for the handling of commercial traffic and press on a noncompetitive basis with commercial enterprises.
    Armstrong was granted U.S. Patent 1,342,885 on the superheterodyne receiver. (8 June)
    A Navy plane was successful in homing on the radio transmissions of a battleship at a distance of 160 miles. (16 June)
    The Naval Radio Laboratory, Anacostia, D.C., began scheduled radio broadcasting.
    The American Telephone & Telegraph Co. became a corporate partner of the General Electric Co. in ownership of the Radio Corp. of America. The two companies signed a cross-license agreement which made it possible to manufacture and improve the three-element tube. (1 July)
    The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. and the Navy signed cross-license agreements on radio patents.
    The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. purchased the Armstrong regenerative and superheterodyne radio patents. (5 Oct.)
    The Lafayette transmitting station, equipped with two 1,000 kw. arc transmitters, was completed and turned over to the French Government. (15 Nov.)
    The Navy made a successful launching and flight of a pilotless aircraft missile utilizing a special designed plane. (18 Nov.)
    Comdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, addressed a letter to Owen D Young, chairman of the board of directors, Radio Corp. of America, pointing out that officials of that company were thwarting efforts of radio manufacturers to provide vacuum tubes to the public. (11 Dec.)
    Construction of the Naval Research Laboratory, Anacostia, D.C., was commenced.
    The Navy experimented with voice communications by radio between aircraft and a partially submerged submarine and was successful in establishing communications.


The Federal Telegraph Co. negotiated a contract with the Government of China for the erection of transpacific radio stations in that country. (8 Jan.)
    The Radio Corp. of America objected to the establishment of a transpacific circuit by the Federal Telegraph Co. and suggested that such a circuit be operated by a consortium of all powers which had wrangled radio concessions from China. Since this was not consistent with our open door policy, Young then suggested that the Radio Corp. own and operate the U.S. terminal and the Federal Co. operate the Chinese terminal.
    The Secretary of the Navy approved the recommendations of a board appointed to investigate and report on the feasibility of the remote control of aircraft by radio. This board had recommended that this project should be undertaken and placed under the cognizance of the Bureau of Ordnance.
    The Interdepartmental Radio Board convened to adjudicate patent infringement claims against the Government. Navy members were Comdr. S. C. Hooper and Lt. Comdr. E. H. Loftin. The latter was appointed chairman. (12 Feb.)
    Loftin in his work with the Interdepartmental Radio Board stated: "There was not a single company among these making radio sets for the Navy which possessed basic patents sufficient to enable them to supply, without infringement, a complete transmitter or receiver."
    The Chief of the Bureau of Engineering addressed similar letters to the General Electric and American Telephone & Telegraph Co. criticizing them for failure to provide three-element tubes for the merchant marine. (23 Apr.)
    The Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance notified the Chief of Naval Operations of his intention to discontinue efforts to develop a pilotless flying missile. (27 Apr.)
    A contract was issued the General Electric Co. for the Model TE transmitter configured for submarines, the Model TF for submarine tenders, and the Model TH for general service usage.
    The Interdepartmental Radio Board recommended the U.S. Government make infringement award to patent owners in the amount of $2,869,700.27. $1,819,520.69 of this sum was apportioned against the Navy. (31 May)
    The U.S.S. Iowa was fitted for remote radio control and the U.S.S. Ohio was equipped with remote radio control equipment.
    The U.S.S. Iowa, under radio control of personnel in the U.S.S. Ohio, was used as an aircraft bombing target. Only two direct hits were made by the U.S. Army Air Force and these did little damage. (22 June)
    The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. became a corporate partner in the Radio Corp. of America with the privilege of manufacturing 40 percent of the radio equipment sold by that corporation. (30 June)
    The Radio Corp. of America possessed rights to over 2,000 radio patents, including the most important ones of the period.
    The Army discontinued its project for the remote control of torpedoes. The Navy continued the development. (30 July)
    The First Annual Convention of the American Radio Relay League opened in Chicago, Ill. (30 Aug.)
    In developing radio controlled aircraft (drones) the responsibility for the design, development, and tests of the radio equipment was assigned the Bureau of Engineering. (21 Oct.)
    Comdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, advised the Radio Corp. of America of the Government's dissatisfaction with its policies.
    A consortium of American, British, French, and German companies was formed, with U.S. Government approval, to operate circuits between the United States and South American countries.
    Young's plan for the cooperation of the Federal Telegraph Co. and the Radio Corp. of America for the provision of radio facilities in China was approved by Secretary of the Navy, Edwin C. Denby, provided the approval of both the Chinese and the U.S. Governments were obtained and that in establishing the circuit with China no tacit approval of a monopoly would be considered to exist.
    Young stated he agreed with the first proviso of Denby's letter but that it was impracticable, that he did not understand why the Navy entered the discussion, and ended by stating that he considered a monopoly in radio by the Radio Corp. of America was essential in the interest of American nationals.
    The Radio Corp., by this date, operated the U.S. terminals of circuit with England, Japan, Germany, Norway, Austria, France, Poland, and countries of the South American consortium. (31 Dec.)
    Twenty-seven amateur radio stations in the United States, transmitting on high frequencies, with power outputs varying between 50 and 1,000 watts were received in Scotland.
    Several House resolutions were introduced for the purpose of appropriating funds to carry out the recommendations of the Interdepartmental Radio Board for the payment of infringement damages. Neither of these resolutions was adopted, Congress considering that these matters should be processed through the U.S. Court of Claims.
    The Government returned the radio patents purchased from the Federal Telegraph Co. in 1918 but retained a nonexclusive, nontransferable, nonrevokable license to use these and future patents granted the Federal Telegraph Co. or its successors.
    The United Fruit Co. became a corporate partner in the Radio Corp. of America.
    The Radio Corp. of America refused to enter into a radio patent cross-license agreement with the Navy.


The Bureau of Engineering assigned a project to the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory for the design and development of radio equipment for the remote control of aircraft. Mr. C. B. Mirick was designated project engineer. (28 Jan.)
    The U.S. Senate ratified the treaties stemming from the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. This resulted in a sharp reduction in the funds available for research in and procurement of electronic equipments.
    A timing device developed under the direction of Dr. H. C. Hayes, Naval Experimental Station, for measuring deep depths by sonic means was tested in the U.S.S. Ohio and found to be extremely accurate.
    The First National Radio Conference convened in Washington, D.C. (27 Feb.)
    A new U.S. naval policy was promulgated which required the maintenance and operation of a communication system based upon a two-ocean war and the development of all forms of fleet communications required for battle efficiency. (29 Mar.)
    Radio communications during the winter exercises of 1921-22 were entirely unsatisfactory, and the commanders of both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets reported a requirement for immediate improvement. Among numerous other difficulties, the Model TC transmitter proved unreliable and unsatisfactory and the use of the force tune system created so much interference that it was impossible to receive messages. Following this, the contract for the Model TG transmitter, which had not been placed in production, was cancelled, and the Bureau of Engineering stated it would make no further procurement of vacuum tube transmitters until such time as improved models became available.
    Congress authorized continued use of Naval radio stations for commercial traffic and press, on a noncompetitive basis, until 30 June 1925. (14 Apr.)
    Eighty radio broadcasting stations possessed Department of Commerce licenses. It was estimated that there were between 500,000 and 700,000 radio receivers in the United States. Interference between broadcasting stations and naval radio stations was increasing daily and the Navy was subjected to much criticism by the public for disrupting broadcast reception. (1 May)
    The Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory broadcasted President Warren G. Harding's address dedicating the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.
    A new underwater sound system (sonar) utilizing a Fessenden oscillator and MV hydrophones, combined with the accurate timing system developed by H. C. Hayes, was tested in the U.S.S. Stewart en route from Newport, R.I., to Chefoo, China, via the Suez Canal. A continuous profile of the ocean's floor was made along the ship's track for the entire voyage.
    Owen D Young acknowledged that Comdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, was the motivating force in the establishment of the Radio Corp. of America.
    Major E. H. Armstrong announced his superregenerative receiving circuit. (28 June)
    The U.S.S. Ohio was decommissioned. This necessitated the use of operational ships for service testing radio equipment and materially slowed performance of these functions.
    A new organization, which established the U.S. Fleet under a commander in chief, was placed into effect under the command of Adm. Hilliary P. Jones, USN. Lt. T. A. M. Craven, USN, became U.S. Fleet Radio Officer. (1 July)
    A total of 198 broadcasting stations had been licensed. The "radio boom" in the United States was in full swing. This increased the requirement for vacuum tube transmitters and resulted in commercial companies increasing their research and development in that field. (1 July)
    Thirty-one new broadcasting stations were licensed in the United States during the month of July.
    The Radio Corp. agreed, under limited conditions, to provide three-element tubes to competing interests.
    Personnel of the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory detected a moving object by means of reflected radio waves.
    The Federal Telegraph Co. of Delaware was formed by the Radio Corp. of America and the Federal Telegraph Co. of Calif. for the purpose of providing radio communications in China.
    Vacuum tubes, with a General Electric Co. rating of 20 kw. were first used in a Radio Corp. of America transmitter at Rocky Point, N.Y. (5 Oct.)
    Fleming's U.S. patent on the two-element tube expired. De Forest again began the manufacture of three-element tubes. (7 Nov.)
    In 5 months the number of radio broadcasting stations in the United States doubled to a total of 569.
    The Navy developed and installed an antenna system capable of transmitting several frequencies simultaneously.
    Limited funds prevented further financial support to commercial manufacturers for the development of vacuum tube transmitters and this resulted in naval radio engineers designing vacuum tube transmitters which utilized as many components of the old spark transmitters as possible. The first of the alternating current tube transmitters was the Model TL designed for battleships. This was followed by the Model TM for submarines, the Model TN for shore stations and the Model TO for battleships.


There were approximately 2 million radio receivers in use in the United States. It was estimated that over one hundred million dollars had been spent for radio equipment during the previous 24 months.
    The Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, reported that rapid communications within the Fleet, between the Fleet and its bases, and between the Fleet and the Navy Department was neither satisfactory nor reliable. (14 Mar.)
    The Second National Radio Conference was convened in Washington, D.C. Broadcasting interests, abetted by the public, demanded the Navy relinquish the 500-1500 kc. frequency band. The Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee agreed that, as soon as possible, the Navy would use the band only on a noninterference basis. (20 Mar.)
    C. Francis Jenkins transmitted photographs by radio from Washington, D.C., to Philadelphia, Pa., with the assistance of naval radio personnel.
    A radio control system for pilotless aircraft, designed and developed by Mr. C. B. Mirick of the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory, was successfully tested in a piloted F-5-L flying boat. (15 Apr.)
    The Radio Corp. of America instituted suit against the A. H. Grebe Co., Inc., in an endeavor to maintain their monopoly of radio tubes. This action resulted in House Resolution 548 which directed the Federal Trade Commission to investigate and report upon the radio industry.
    The Navy designed Model TL transmitter, utilizing spark transmitter components, was service tested and found to be satisfactory.
    The U.S. Navy General Board concurred with the Commander in Chief. U.S. Fleet, concerning the unreliable and unsatisfactory state of naval communications.
    Based upon the recommendations of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, and the concurrence in these by the General Board and in consonance with the newly promulgated naval policy, the Bureau of Engineering made plans for the modernization of naval radio equipment. Congress was requested to appropriate $2½ million for this purpose.
    The Naval Research Laboratory was established at Anacostia, D.C. The Radio Division of this Laboratory consisted of the Naval Radio Research Laboratory, the Naval Aircraft Radio Laboratory, and the Naval Radio Test Shop of the Washington Navy Yard. Dr. A. Hoyt Taylor was the first head of the Radio Division. The Sound Division was formed under Dr. H. C. Hayes by transferring the sound personnel who had been working under his direction at the Naval Experimental Station, Annapolis, Md. (1 July)
    The Chinese Government approved the provision of radio communication stations in China by the Federal Telegraph Co. of Delaware. (13 July)
    The Mirick designed remote radio control system was installed in an N-9 plane equipped with the Norden automatic control system.
    Capt. R. W. McNeely, USN, relieved Comdr. S. C. Hooper, USN, as Head of the Radio and Sound Division, Bureau of Engineering. Hooper was assigned duty as radio officer, staff Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet. Craven became Head of the ship Section of the Radio Division. (July)
    The final remote radio control flight testing for the year was made, with the plane in flight being controlled from the ground for 25 minutes. (14 Nov.)
    The Naval Research Laboratory began exploration of use of frequencies above 2000 kcs.
    The Naval Research Laboratory designed, constructed, and installed the first airborne high-frequency transmitter in the rigid airship U.S.S. Shenandoah.
    All battleships were fitted with Model TL transmitters, and the CW 936 transceiver was modified and fitted to transmit interrupted continuous waves for use in intrafleet communications as a replacement of motor buzzer sets.


The Commander in Chief's report of communications during the winter exercises pointed out that, although some improvement had been made in transmitters, unsatisfactory receiving equipment and lack of duplexing made Fleet radio communications entirely unsatisfactory. (19 F
    A special board, appointed to investigate the deficiencies of radio communication within the Battle Fleet, reported that these were the result of a communication plan which was too complicated for the inadequate equipment and poorly trained personnel.
    The Bureau of Engineering formulated a plan for the modernization and standardization of radio installations in capital ships. In accordance with the previous agreement to vacate the 500-1500 kcs. band, except on a noninterference basis, it envisioned the use of the 1500-4000 kcs. band for intrafleet communications.
    The Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, commenting upon the Bureau of Engineering's modernization plan, stated that he could not concur in vacating the 500-1500 kcs. band until he could be assured that the 1500-4000 kcs. band would be satisfactory and that funds would be available to provide equipment utilizing that band. He further stated that, in his opinion, the number of commercial broadcast stations would be greatly reduced in the near future and that this would decrease the interferences in the broadcast band. (27 Mar.)
    First transatlantic transmission of radio photo made by the Radio Corp. of America. (6 June)
    Congress appropriated $1½ million for the modernization of naval communications.
    Capt. Ridley McLean, USN, became Director of Naval Communications. (July)
    Mr. M. P. Hanson, Naval Research Laboratory, designed the first high-frequency receiver, the Model RG, suitable for naval usage. The high-frequency transmitter built by the Laboratory the previous year and the RG receiver were used by the U.S.S. Shenandoah on her first round trip transcontinental flight. Almost continuous communications were maintained between the airship and the Laboratory during the flight.
    The first sustained pilotless controlled flight of a plane was made using the Mirick remote radio control system and the Norden automatic pilot. The duration of this flight was 40 minutes, during which time it was put into the air, controlled through many maneuvers, and landed by a radio control station on the ground. (Prior to this both English and French personnel had managed to get a plane airborne and controlled for a few minutes.)
    The Third National Radio Conference was convened in Washington, D.C. (6 Oct.)
    The dirigible, U.S.S. Los Angeles, was delivered from Germany under its own power. It was equipped with German transmitters and receivers.
    The Naval Research Laboratory in conjunction with amateurs, notably J. L. Reinartz and M. J. Lee, conducted studies of skip distances which resulted in the modification of existing wave propagation theories by Drs. A. H. Taylor and E. O. Hulbert of the Laboratory.
    The Naval Research Laboratory reported that it was feasible to control a plane by radio beyond visual range. (22 Nov.)
    Mr. L. A. Gebhard assisted by Messrs. Matthew Schenk and Edwin White, all of the Naval Research Laboratory, designed and constructed the first crystal-controlled high-frequency transmitter. They had the consultant services of Dr. Karl Van Dyke and Mr. Walter G. Cady, the country's two foremost authorities on quartz crystals.


The Naval Research Laboratory completed the development of pulse radio transmitting equipment. This was done under the direction of Mr. L. A. Gebhard.
    Congress extended the authority of naval radio stations to handle commercial and press traffic, on a noncompetitive basis, until 30 June 1927.
    The greater portion of the $2½ million appropriated for the modernization of naval radio equipment during fiscal year 1925 lapsed because of lack of availability of equipment, lack of coordination between the Bureau of Engineering and the Bureau of Construction and Repair, the inability of the Bureau of Engineering and the Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, to agree upon a plan, and the lack of interest of most of the officers in the fleet.
    U.S. Navy experimented in the use of high frequencies for communications on the U.S. Fleet cruise to Australia. The flagship, the U.S.S. Seattle, was able to maintain daily communications with the Navy Department, through the Naval Research Laboratory, during the major part of this cruise. Lt. Frederick Schnell, USNR and traffic manager of the American Radio Relay League, was called to active duty to conduct these tests in the U.S.S. Seattle. (June-Aug.)
    The Naval Research Laboratory in cooperation with the Carnegie Institution confirmed the Kennelly-Heaviside Theory. The pulse transmitter developed by the Laboratory was utilized for this purpose.
    Twenty-eight test flights of the Mirick remote radio control system and the Norden automatic pilot installed in a Vought plane were conducted between 19 June and this date. None were completely successful. (14 Sept.)
    Following successful experiments utilizing high frequencies for long-distance communications, the Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, recommended the modification of the fleet frequency plan to utilize these frequencies. He further recommended that ship-shore circuits not use frequencies above 9000 kc. (Sept.)
    A successful remote control flight was made using the Mirick remote radio control system and the Norden automatic pilot installed in a Vought plane. A safety pilot was in the plane. (28 Oct.)
    An unsuccessful attempt was made to fly a Vought plane by remote radio control. Following this failure interest waned in the project and it remained almost dormant until 1936.
    Lt. T. A. M. Craven, USN, assisted by officers of the Naval Communications Division developed a U.S. Navy radio frequency plan which utilized frequencies up to 20 mc. and used the broadcast band only on a noninterference basis.


The Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee approved a U.S. Naval Communications Frequency Plan which utilized frequencies from 15 kc. to 19 mc. (25 Feb.)
    S. C. Hooper became Head of the Radio Division of the Bureau of Engineering for the third time.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Engineering released information concerning a revised radio modernization plan. (8 Mar.)
    The Attorney General of the United States was forced, by court decision, to issue the edict that the Secretary of Commerce did not have the power to withhold radio transmitting licenses from reputable citizens. (16 Apr.)
    The Radio Corp. of America established point-to-point radio facsimile service between New York and London and transmitted first commercial picture across the Atlantic. (1 May)
    The performance of the Naval Research Laboratory XA high-frequency radio transmitter proved most satisfactory. (20 July)
    Radio receivers powered by 110-volt alternating current were introduced for home use.
    The Radio Division of Naval Research Laboratory was directed to cease operation and manufacture of radio equipment and to expend all its efforts on research and development. (27 Oct.)
    The Radio Corp. of America, the General Electric Co., and the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. were requested to cooperate with the Naval Research Laboratory in research, development and design of new naval radio equipments. These companies took the position that such cooperation would endanger their own developments. (11 Nov.)
    An 80-kw. vacuum tube transmitter was installed at the Naval Radio Station, San Diego (Chollas Heights), Calif.
    Lt. Comdr. (later Rear Adm.) Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (retired) flew over the North Pole. His aircraft was fitted with a high-frequency transmitter.


Mr. P. T. Farnsworth filed a patent application covering an electronic television system. (7 Jan.)
    The Radio Act of 1927 was enacted by Congress. This gave the Secretary of the Navy authority, under certain stipulations, to utilize all naval radio stations for the transmission and reception of commercial messages. Additionally, it authorized him to prescribe and collect reasonable tariffs for the handling of such messages.
    President Coolidge approved the Radio Act of 1927, which established the Federal Radio Commission for a period of 1 year and vested in it the authority to license and control commercial and private radio transmitting stations. (23 Feb.)
    The Federal Radio Commission was appointed. Rear Adm. W. H. G. Bullard, USN (retired), was the first chairman of the commission. (2 Mar.)
    The Chief of Naval Operations approved a change in the modernization plan which eliminated installation of high-frequency radio equipments in numerous minor vessels. (31 Mar.)
    The Bell Telephone Laboratories demonstrated landline television between Washington and New York and radio television between Whippany, N.J., and New York. (7 Apr.)
    The Bell Telephone Laboratories demonstrated television, both image and sound, by means of a single radio transmitter using the same frequency band. (16 Apr.)
    The Federal Radio Commission ordered 129 transmitting stations, which had been operating on unassigned frequencies, to return to those previously assigned them by the Department of Commerce.
    Capt. T. T. Craven, USN, became Director of Naval Communications. (June)
    The Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, requested more modern receivers powered by alternating current. (July)
    The Fourth International Radio Conference was opened in Washington with a welcoming address by President Coolidge. Secretary of Commerce Hoover was the presiding officer of the conference. Capt. T. T. Craven, USN, was one of the U.S. delegates. Among other things, it established a permanent International Consulting Committee on Radio Communications to provide opinions and advice on technical questions of radio communications. (4 Oct.)
    The first experimental sets of underwater supersonic echo ranging devices were installed in several naval vessels.
    The Submarine Signal Co. began producing the Fathometer. This quickly became a standard installation for U.S. naval vessels.


Congress reluctantly extended the authority of the Federal Radio Commission another year.
    The National Broadcasting Co. received its first television station construction permit. (4 Apr.)
    Rapid progress had been made in the modernization of fleet and shore radio equipment. (July)
    Hooper became Director of Naval Communications and was relieved as Head of the Radio Division by E. C. Raquet. (July)
    The reception of transmissions during the entire cross-country flight of an airplane was achieved by the Naval Research Laboratory.
    The U.S. Government commenced installations of radio ranges as aircraft aids to navigation.
    The U.S. Supreme Court reversed rulings of lower courts and awarded priority of invention of the "feedback" circuit to De Forest. (29 Oct.)
    Dr. V. K. Zworykin of the Radio Corp. of America was granted U.S. Patent 1,691,324. This related principally to color television.
    Commander (later Rear Adm.) Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN, (retired), headed an aerial exploration over the South Pole. The Naval Communication Service assisted him in this endeavor. One of the most notable accomplishments of the expedition was the transmission of more than 300,000 groups of press messages to the New York Times.


The Convention and Regulations adopted by the Fourth International Radio Conference became effective. This included an allocation of frequency bands by usages based upon a plan adopted earlier by the U.S. Navy. (1 Jan.)
    The Radio Corp. of America acquired control of the Victor Talking Machine Co.
    Application for a patent on the Espenschied-Affel coaxial transmission cable was made. (23 May)
    The Chief of Naval Operations approved a change to the 1926 radio modernization plan designed to meet the growing radio communications requirements of the fleet. (1 June)
    The Naval Research Laboratory produced the JK electronic listening device which replaced the acoustic devices fitted in submarines.
    The Naval Communication Service established area communication officers in the Atlantic, Pacific and Asiatic zones.
    The Naval Communication Service conducted experiments to adapt the teletypewriter to radio.
    Dr. A. W. Hull of the General Electric Co. announced the development of the screen-grid electronic tube.
    Congress again extended the time limit and authority of the Federal Radio Commission.
    Dr. V. K. Zworykin of the Radio Corp. of America demonstrated the kinescope (cathode ray television picture tube). (18 Nov.)
    Rear Adm. R. E. Byrd, USN, (retired), flight over the South Pole was announced by radio from Little America, Antarctica.


The London Naval Conference convened. (21 Jan.) The Bell Telephone Laboratories demonstrated two-way landline television between stations 2 miles apart. (9 Apr.)
    The "Annual Report of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet," acknowledge the great improvement made in naval communications but continued to stress the need for more modern receivers. (1 July)
    The Naval Research Laboratory designed and developed an RAC low-frequency barrage receiver for use at shore radio stations.
    The Radio Corp. of America-Victor was awarded contract for design, development and manufacture of models RAA and RAB radio receivers.
    Models TAU, TAZ, TBA, TBB, and TBC transmitters were purchased.
    The JK listening device was modified by the addition of a small transmitter which produced "pings" which were utilized for underwater communications.
    The Director, Naval Research Laboratory, submitted a detailed report on "Radio-Echo Signals from Moving Objects" to the Chief of the Bureau of Engineering. (5 Nov.)
    The Bureau of Engineering directed the Naval Research Laboratory to investigate the use of radio to detect the presence of enemy vessels and aircraft.
    Comdr. S. A. Monahan, USN, became Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Engineering. (Dec.)
    Direct commercial radio communications finally established between the United States and China.
    Mr. P. T. Farnsworth advised the Federal Radio Commission that he had succeeded in narrowing the band required for television to 6000 kc.


The Naval Research Laboratory developed the QB echo ranging sonar. This was fitted in newly constructed submarines in addition to the JK apparatus. This transducer utilized newly developed Rochelle salt crystals instead of quartz.
    Models RAA and RAW superheterodyne, alternating current receivers installed afloat.
    The U.S. Navy possessed the most modern and the most efficient radio system of any Navy.
    Radio Section, Design Branch, Material Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, was established. (Aug.)
    Mr. L. A. Hyland of the Naval Research Laboratory discovered that the echos of radio waves revealed the presence and location of aircraft in flight. (Sept.)


Radio Section, Design Branch, Material Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, was retitled the Radio and Electrical Section. (Apr.)
    The first of several high-powered vacuum tube transmitters was delivered the U.S. Navy and installed in the Naval Radio Station, Cavite, P.I.
    A complete radio detection system for the air surveillance of an area about 30 miles in diameter was devised and enough components were installed to prove its capabilities. It was not satisfactory for shipboard usage and the Secretary of the Navy suggested it might meet the requirements of the Army.
    The Fifth International Radio Conference convened in Madrid, Spain. The convention adopted by this conference was concerned with modifying the Washington Convention by providing additional channels for aviation communications and the further assignments of specific high-frequency long-distance communications channels.


The Chief of Naval Operations was requested to provide forces afloat with high-speed, radio-control-led aerial targets. (22 Apr.)
    The Director, Naval Research Laboratory advised the Bureau of Ordnance of the possibilities of controlling gunfire by microwave radio. (15 Sept.)
    Comdr. W. J. Ruble, USN, became Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Engineering. (Oct.)
    The Washington Navy Yard had produced 20 sets of QB sonar. This was not sufficient and the Submarine Signal Co. was awarded a contract to provide 30 additional sets.
    The Naval Research Laboratory in collaboration with the Goodrich Tire and Rubber Co. developed a spherical cover for the QB transducer which permitted submarines to make speeds up to 10 knots before water noises became excessive.


Dr. V. K. Zworykin proposed the Navy develop an unmanned aerial torpedo. Naval officials concluded that it was unsuited as a naval weapon because of its weight, complexity and lack of penetration.
    The Naval Research Laboratory designed, developed and constructed the world's first radar equipment.
    Dr. R. M. Page was placed in charge of a special section of the Naval Research Laboratory to push radar and other high-frequency radio projects.
    Dr. R. M. Page and his assistants at the Naval Research Laboratory designed and constructed their first radar equipment. During tests in December it proved unsatisfactory.
    Mr. Leo Young suggested that pulse radio transmission might make it possible to colocate a radar transmitter and receiver. (Mar.)
    The Communications Act of 1934 was signed by President Roosevelt. This established the Federal Communications Commission as the successor to the Federal Radio Commission. (9 June)
    The Naval Research Laboratory developed a sonar transducer which utilized magnetostriction tubes instead of salt crystals. The Submarine Signal Co. began production of these at an annual rate of approximately 14. This company also adopted this transducer for use in the Fathometer.
    Mr. W. F. Curtis of the Naval Research Laboratory experimented with magnetrons at about 750 mc.
    Eitel-McCullough, Inc., developed a triode of greater efficiency. It was designated the 100 TH.
    The U.S. Supreme Court upheld De Forest as the inventor of the "feedback" circuit. (9 Oct.)
    Joint agreement between the Chiefs, Bureau of Engineering and Bureau of Aeronautics, provided that the latter would initiate all procurement requests for aircraft radio equipment and that the former would issue the requisitions and select the contractors subject to the latter's approval. (22 Oct.)


The Naval Research Laboratory in collaboration with the Wood's Hole Oceanographic Institute instituted a study of oceanography and underwater sounds to determine the cause of the vagaries being encountered in the use of sonar.
    The Radio Corp. announced that it would allocate $1 million for field television tests. (7 May)
    Rear Adm. C. E. Courtney, USN, became Director of Naval Communications. (July)
    Personnel of the Naval Research Laboratory under the direction of Dr. R. M. Page completed the design of the pulse radar transmitter circuit.
    Mr. E. H. Armstrong demonstrated a frequency modulation system using a 2.5 meter wave. (6 Nov.)


The Bell Telephone Laboratories developed coaxial transmission lines and waveguides.
    The Chief of Naval Operations addressed a letter to the Bureaus of Ordnance, Aeronautics, and Engineering calling their attention to the urgent need of radio-controlled aerial targets. (23 Mar.)
    The use of hollow tubing as a "waveguide" for the transmission of ultra-high-frequency radio waves was reported by Bell Laboratories and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (30 Apr.)
    The Chief of Naval Operations directed the Bureaus of Aeronautics and Engineering to proceed with the development of four radio-controlled aircraft. (1 May)
    Tests of the Naval Research Laboratory designed and constructed pulse radar equipment were successful. This used separate transmitting and receiving antennaes. Mr. Leo Young of the Laboratory suggested the means of utilizing the same antenna for both purposes.
    The Radio Corp. of America began tests to demonstrate the value of television in aerial reconnaissance.
    The Bell System provided the first coaxial cable for television use between the studio and transmitter of the National Broadcasting Co. in New York. (10 June)
    The Navy's pulse radar system was demonstrated to high Government officials. (10 June)
    The Radio Corp. of America demonstrated ultra-short-wave radio facsimile between New York and Philadelphia using two automatic relay stations between the terminals. (10 June)
    The Radio Corp. of America demonstrated the operation of a complete two-way radio relay system, using frequencies above 30 mc. between New York and Philadelphia. (11 June)
    The Chief of the Bureau of Engineering directed that the Navy's radar project be given the highest possible priority. (12 June)
    The duplexer, permitting use of a single radar antenna, designed and developed by the Naval Research Laboratory, was completed.
    The Naval Research Laboratory commenced design and development of two sets of radar equipment for shipboard installation. One was a 200 mc. pulse type, the other a 1,200 mc. phase shift type, modulated at 30 kc.
    The Bureau of Aeronautics established a radiocontrolled aircraft project under the direction of Lt. Comdr. D. S. Fahrney, USN. (20 July)
    Personnel of the Naval Research Laboratory used the magnetron to produce oscillations at 3,000 mc. but did not achieve reliability.
    The Fleet Sonar School was established at San Diego, Calif. to train sonar operators in its use and in the science of oceanography.
    The American Telephone & Telegraph Co. coaxial cable between Philadelphia and New York was placed under test. (1 Dec.)
    The Secretary of the Navy approved a joint agreement between the Chiefs of the Bureaus of Engineering and Aeronautics wherein the former was made responsible for research, design, development, and procurement of aircraft radio equipment subject to the approval of the latter. The Bureau of Aeronautics was to define policies subject to the approval of the Chief of Naval Operations and was to provide specific items which it desired research and development pushed. Direct charges of these programs were to be financed by the Bureau of Aeronautics. (31 Dec.)


The Naval Research Laboratory made complete disclosure of its radar development to the Army Signal Corps Laboratory. (18 Jan.)
    The Philco Radio & Television Corp. demonstrated television of 44 lines in a 3-mile test in Philadelphia. (11 Feb.)
    Personnel of the Naval Research Laboratory completed the development and satisfactorily operated the control system of a drone at a distance of 25 miles. The design and development of the control equipment was carried out under the direction of Mr. Matthew Schrenk. (17 Feb.)
    A board of officers convened to examine a proposal of Dr. V. K. Zworykin to develop guided missiles reported unfavorably on the project. (27 Feb.)
    A Navy drone, with safety pilot, was controlled in flight by radio. (29 Mar.)
    The Assistant Secretary of the Navy and the Chief of Naval Operations witnessed a demonstration of Navy developed radar equipment.
    Two radar sets were installed in the U.S.S. Leary for testing. The pulse-type equipment located planes at ranges of 18 miles.
    Mr. V. K. Zworykin of the Radio Corp. of America demonstrated an electron projection "gun" which projected television pictures on an 8-inch by 10-inch screen. (12 May)
    Capt. Leigh Noyes, USN, became Director of Naval Communications.
    Complete disclosure of all technical details of radar were made by the Naval Research Laboratory to Bell Telephone Laboratory engineers and Western Electric Co. officials. The latter made a proposal to develop a 700-mc. equipment. (13 July)
    Mr. T. A. M. Craven appointed a member of the Federal Communications Commission. (17 July)
    The Army Signal Corps demonstrated a pulse-type radar based upon development work accomplished after they were provided information by the Naval Research Laboratory. (30 July)
    The Federal Communications Commission authorized tests of radio facsimile on regular broadcast channels during early morning hours.
    The Federal Communications Commission opened the spectrum to 30 mc. for various non-Government services and experimenters. (15 Oct.)
    The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics directed an investigation be made concerning the use of radio control for flight-testing new aircraft.
    A pilotless Navy drone was taken off the ground by a ground radio control station, maneuvered in the air by an airborne control station, and then landed by the ground control station. It was a hard landing which carried away a part of the landing gear. (15 Nov.)
    A pilotless drone was put in the air, maneuvered, and landed without accident. (25 Dec.)
    A conference of North American countries was held at Ottawa to ease the broadcast interferences between nations.
    A conference of Western Hemisphere countries was convened in Lima, Peru, to discuss aeronautical radio problems.
    A conference of Western Hemisphere countries convened in Havana, Cuba, to consider Western Hemisphere positions at the Sixth International Radio Conference.


Two pulse radars, one directed ahead and the other down, were installed in a plane by RCA engineers as a safety-in-flight system.
    The Federal Communications Commission allocated a band of 25 ultrahigh frequencies for noncommercial educational broadcasts. (27 Jan.)
    The Sixth International Radio Conference convened in Cairo, Egypt. Capt. S. C. Hooper, USN, was one of the four U.S. delegates. As in the Madrid Conference, this one was primarily concerned with providing increased radio facilities for aviators, plus the allocation of the uses of the newly developed portion of the radio spectrum between 30 and 300 mc. (1 Feb.)
    The Naval Research Laboratory was directed to complete a 200-mc. radar for shipboard installation and test prior to end of year. This was given the designation XAF. (24 Feb.)
    The basic principles of radar were divulged to engineers of the Radio Corp. of America and that firm was given a contract to develop an experimental radar in the 400-mc. band. This equipment was for shipboard installation and test and was required to be ready for installation and test prior to the end of the year. This set was designated CXZ.
    Lt. Comdr. J. H. Dow, USN, became Head of the Radio Division, Bureau of Engineering.
    A 200-mc. radar equipment, utilizing a "multiple-tube ring-mounted transmitter oscillator" suggested by Dr. R. M. Page of the Naval Research Laboratory, was completed. It was successful in detecting aircraft for distances up to 48 miles.
    The first operational radar installation on a U.S. Navy vessel was fitted in the U.S.S. New York.
    Extensive training exercises were established for Naval Communications Reserve personnel. Over 2,700 private and Government stations were involved in these exercises.
    A drone was first used by the Navy as an aerial target for the U.S.S. Ranger. Her antiaircraft batteries failed to make a hit on either of two runs.
    A drone was used to simulate a dive-bombing attack on the U.S.S. Utah. It was brought down by a hit by the second salvo. (14 Sept.)
    The Bell Telephone Laboratories demonstrated a radar altimeter. (10 Oct.)


Mr. E. H. Armstrong demonstrated the use of frequency-modulated transmissions on 7.5 meters with a 40-kw. transmitter. (17 Jan.)
    Tests of XAF and CXZ radar sets completed in the fleet. The XAF was considered very satisfactory but the CXZ proved of little value because of its hurried design and construction. (24 Mar.)
    The Bell Telephone Laboratories designed, constructed and tested a 500-mc. radar. It was satisfactory for some applications but not for the control of gunfire.
    Contracts were awarded the Submarine Signal Co. and the Radio Corp. of America for sonar equipments to equip all U.S. destroyers.
    The radio equipment of the Navy, installed in the late 1920's and early 1930's was rapidly becoming obsolescent.
    The Naval Radio Station, Cheltenham, Md., was commissioned as the radio-receiving center for the Navy Department and Potomac and Severn River naval activities.
    The National Broadcasting Co. applied for a license for a frequency-modulated transmitting station. (13 July)
    England and France declared war on Germany. The Navy awarded first contracts for commercially manufactured radar equipments.
    Tests with television equipment in aircraft were commenced by the Naval Aircraft Factory.
    Contract awarded the Radio Corp. of America for the construction of six "Chinese copies" of the XAF radar equipment.
    Rear Adm. Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN, (retired), led a second Antarctic exploration expedition. He was provided Navy communications personnel and equipment.
    Personnel of the Naval Research Laboratory designed and developed a radio altimeter using a 500-mc. transmitter. It was placed under commercial production.
    Dr. R. M. Page in a report to the Director, Naval Research Laboratory, stressed the need of a new tube to permit utilization of higher frequencies for radar in order to reduce antenna size and weight.
    During this year the Navy expended $1,500,000 for the purchase and maintenance of electronic equipments.
    In the Navy there were approximately 122,000 personnel. Of this number, about 1,500 officers and 10,500 men were engaged in communications.


There were 743 licensed radio stations broadcasting to 45,300,000 receivers. Nine experimental frequency-modulated stations were licensed at this time. (1 Jan.)
    Radio Corp. of America engineers designed a compact transmitter and camera to provide airborne television.
    A Naval Research Laboratory report reiterated the requirement for developing a new tube in order utilize higher frequencies in radar equipments and stated the importance of integrating identification and recognition systems with radar. It also emphasized the necessity of applying radar to fire control and the development of repeater units and the plan position indicator. (26 Feb.)
    The Federal Communications Commission approved limited commercial television operations effective September 1940.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics directed that a radio-controlled plane be fitted to fly at a set altitude, just clear of the water to determine the practicability of the use of radio-controlled torpedoes. The tests indicated that it could be flown into a target consistently by a control operator flying 1½ miles astern of it.
    A decision of the Supreme Court made it possible for the Federal Communications Commission to license new broadcast stations without regard to possible economic injury to existent stations.
    The Western Electric Co. was awarded a developmental contract for one fire-control radar, designated CXAS.
    President Roosevelt directed that every effort be exerted to prevent a monopoly of television.
    The Naval Research Laboratory requested that funds for radar research for fiscal year 1941 be more than doubled.
    The Radio Corp delivered six radar equipments, designated CXAM, to the Navy.
    The Federal Communications Commission unanimously rescinded its 28 February order that limited commercial television operations would begin on 1 September 1940.
    The Chief of Naval Operations directed immediate expedition of radar research. (1 June)
    Public Law 671 was enacted. This eliminated archaic methods of material procurement. Italy entered the war as an Axis partner.
    France capitulated to Germany. (17 June)
    The National Defense Research Committee was established. (27 June)
    The Bureau of Engineering and the Bureau of Construction and Repair were consolidated into a single Bureau of Ships. Concurrent with a departmental reorganization, the Radio and Sound Division became the Radio and Sound Branch, Design Division, Bureau of Ships. (1 July)
    Comdr. A. J. Spriggs, USN, became Head of the Radio and Sound Branch, Bureau of Ships.
    The Federal Communications Commission announced that it had authorized 22 experimental frequency-modulated transmitter stations.
    A Microwave Research Committee was established under the National Defense Research Committee.
    The Navy negotiated a contract with the Radio Corp. of America for 14 CXAM-1 radar equipments.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Ships stated that the Navy would require $10 million for radar, research, development and procurement in 1941 and twice that amount in 1942.
    The Western Electric Co. was awarded a contract for surface fire-control radar equipment operating at 500 mc. (25 July)
    The Bureau of Ordnance made an informal request to the National Defense Research Committee for the development of a proximity fuze. (12 Aug.)
    The National Defense Research Committee established a section under Dr. M. A. Tuve to conduct research looking to the development of a proximity fuze. (17 Aug.)
    Commercially constructed radar equipments were installed in some Navy vessels.
    The British Technical Mission arrived in Washington for the purpose of exchanging research information with the National Defense Research Committee.
    The U.S. Government was advised of the British improvement to the magnetron which made it capable of supplying oscillator power in the microwave band.
    The Defense Communications Board was created to plan for the use of communications in the National defense. Its original members were James L. Fly of the Federal Communications Commission; Rear Adm. Lee Noyes, USN; Maj. Gen. J. O. Mangborne, USA; H. E. Gaston, Treasury Department; and Breckinridge Long, State Department.
    The first multicavity resonator magnetron constructed in this country was completed at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. (10 Oct.)
    The British Technical Mission suggested that the United States undertake the development of a microwave aircraft interception system and a microwave antiaircraft fire control system.
    Upon resumption of military scientific exchange with England, it was discovered that underwater sound developments in the two countries had been almost parallel. England had continued the use of quartz-steel transducers in their Asdic but had developed a streamlined dome which further reduced water noises. The Asdic was capable of permanent recording ranges. The United States adopted both of these improvements.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics advised the Chief of Naval Operations that a number of projects were under examination, some of which would lead to the development of a guided missile.
    The Federal Communications Commission issued the first construction permits for frequency-modulated broadcast stations. (31 Oct.)
    The Radiation Laboratory, under the administration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was established by the Microwave Committee and commenced operations.
    Mr. Alfred L. Loomis made the initial suggestion for an electronic air navigation system which was later developed into Loran (long range navigation system) by the Radiation Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    The use of the term "radar" was directed by the Chief of Naval Operations in nonclassified reference to "radio detection and ranging." (18 Nov.)
    The Western Electric Co. was awarded a contract for 10 CXAS-1 (later designated FA) fire-control radars. (2 Dec.)
    The Navy purchased a quantity of British 175-mc. airborne search radars. These were modified by the addition of a duplexing system and the elimination of one antenna.
    The Naval Research Laboratory designed and developed the XAR 200-mc. search radar. Contracts were awarded the General Electric Co. and the Radio Corp. of America for engineering and producing equipments based upon the Laboratory models. These were designated the SC and SA, respectively.
    The Naval Research Laboratory designed and developed an aircraft warning radar for submarines using the 114-mc. band. It was engineered and first produced by the Radio Corp. of America and was designated SD.


There were 802 licensed radio broadcast stations transmitting to over 51 million receivers. (1 Jan.)
    The Naval Research Laboratory commenced conversion of the radio pulse altimeter to an airborne search radar.
    A 10,000-mc. multicavity resonator magnetron was completed and tested by the Bell Telephone Laboratories. It did not produce satisfactory peak-pulse power. (18 Jan.)
    The Radio Corp. of America completed the development of a radar altimeter which gave excellent low-altitude performance. (27 Jan.)
    U.S. Navy directed concentration on the development of an electronic proximity fuze.
    A 700-mc. multicavity resonator magnetron was completed and tested at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. (14 Feb.)
    Tests of Radio Corp. of America television equipment provided usable picture informations from a plane in flight to a ground receiver station up to a distance of 30 miles. (17 Feb.)
    Dr. R. M. Page of the Naval Research Laboratory designed and developed the plan position indicator.
    In consonance with the agreement reached at the Regional Radio Conference at Havana, Cuba, the frequency assignments of 777 United States broadcasting stations were reallocated.
    The National Defense Research Council established a division under Dr. J. F. Tate to conduct research in underwater sound and oceanography. Numerous contracts were awarded scientific groups and universities to assist in this program.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance suggested that all-out efforts should be made to develop the guided missile. (15 Apr.)
    The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics advised that progress in the guided missile program was satisfactory and that radar was being developed as a guidance system. (18 Apr.)
    Lt. Comdr. G. G. B. Hall, USN, became Head of the Radio and Electrical Section, Design Branch, Material Division, Bureau of Aeronautics. (24 Apr.)
    The Aircraft Radio Maintenance Section, Maintenance Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, was established. (1 May)
    An improved 700-mc. multicavity resonator magnetron was completed, tested at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, and placed under production by the Western Electric Co.
    A "breadboard" model of the (SG) microwave surface-search radar, equipped with the Naval Research Laboratory plan position indicator, was tested on the U.S.S. Semmes. It produced excellent results.
    Tests of airborne television equipment provided pictures of sufficient quality on the receiver in another plane to permit the pilot of the latter to direct the pilot of the former to pass directly over a preselected target.
    The Radio Corp. of America developed a small television system which weighed only 70 pounds and proved successful in providing telemetering information.
    The SG microwave surface-search radar was placed under production contract.
    A "breadboard" model of the FC surface fire-control radar was completed and tested. Its performance was far superior to the model FA and it was placed under limited production.
    An improved 10,000-mc. multicavity resonator magnetron was completed and tested by the Bell Telephone Laboratories. Plans were made to place this under contract but the strapped magnetron was developed prior to production. (11 June)
    The Bureau of Aeronautics abandoned its previous policy of installing electronic equipment in planes and established the policy of having aircraft contractors install nonclassified equipments.
    Commercial operation of television began in the United States with 21 licensed transmitting stations.
    The Naval Research Laboratory commenced the development of a drone radar and radar repeatback system. The National Defense Research Council commenced the development of a drone 3-cm. radar recognition system. (1 Aug)
    Forty-seven of fifty simulated torpedo attacks with the guided missile carried out during the month were successful.
    The first model FD aerial radar fire-control system was completed and tested satisfactorily. It was later installed in the U.S.S. Roe. (28 Aug.)
    The Bell Telephone Laboratories developed "lobing."
    Numerous commercial companies participated in research and development of the proximity fuze.
    The Naval Research Laboratory provided the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. and the Radio Corp. of America information on which to construct preproduction models of the airborne search radar conversion from the radio pulse altimeter. It was designated ASB.
    British scientists at Birmingham University developed the strapped magnetron. The Bell Telephone Laboratories produced a similar one within a week after receiving information concerning this tube.
    Destroyers, totalling 170, were the only United States naval vessels equipped with sonar.
    Delivery of production models of the FD radar commenced.
    Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, at 1300 e.s.t. (7 Dec.)
    All United States amateur radio stations closed by order of the Federal Communications Commission.
    The U.S. Government declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy.
    Comdr. J. B. Dow, USN, became the Head of the Radio and Sound Branch, Design Division, Bureau of Ships.
    The Navy established its first landline teletypewriter system linking naval activities at Washington, Norfolk, Philadelphia, New York, New London, Boston, and Portsmouth, N.H.
    President Roosevelt established a Director of Censorship for radio and press. The U.S. Weather Bureau placed a ban on all weather broadcasts.
    President Roosevelt granted the military departments authority to negotiate contracts. (27 Dec.)
    Mr. Loren F. Jones completed the development of teleran (television radar air navigation system).


By the beginning of this year an airborne microwave radar set (ASV) for the detection of surface vessels had been developed and placed under production.
    The Office of Procurement and Material was established within the Navy Department. This office was authorized to act for the War Production Board.
    Material procurement was handicapped by lack of allowances, archaic methods of procurement, lack of price experience, and insufficient production capabilities.
    The Production Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, took over the responsibility for financing and procuring aircraft radio equipments.
    Quantity production of good, high-power 3,000 and 10,00-mc. strapped magnetrons was commenced by the Western Electric and other manufacturing companies.
    Office of Facts and Figures (Office of War Information) designated as clearinghouse for U.S. Government radio broadcasts. (16 Jan.)
    Trials of the proximity fuze proved successful.
    War Production Board, advised the electronic industry that it must be converted totally to war production within 4 months. (13 Feb.)
    A thorough study of the physical and electrical characteristics of each ship type was commenced.
    The responsibility for research and development of the proximity fuze was transferred to the Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and was placed under the administration of Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory.
    War Production Board ordered radio manufacturers to discontinue making radios and phonographs for civilian use by 23 April. (7 Mar.)
    The Chief of Naval Operations directed tests be conducted to determine the necessary characteristics for assault drones and their control planes and the tactical employment of assault drones.
    The Bureau of Aeronautics was directed to procure 200 expendable assault drones. (23 Mar.)
    Further tests of the proximity fuze indicated that the design was satisfactory.
    War Production Board ordered electronic tube manufacturers to discontinue the production of 349 types of tubes by April to save critical materials and manpower. (17 Apr.)
    The Naval Electronics Laboratory was established at San Diego, Calif.
    Delivery of airborne search radars (ASB) was commenced.
    An electronics procurement section was established in the Radio Branch, Design Division, Bureau of Ships. All procurements were thereafter made by that section.
    The Naval Aircraft Factory was directed to make a study of controlling assault drones from surface vessels and submarines by means of radio and 3- or 10-cm. radar.
    The Vice Chief of Naval Operations established Project Option, appointed Capt. Oscar Smith, USN, as his direct representative for this assault drone program, and directed that the number of drones to be procured be increased from 200 to 1,000.
    The Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics requested that Project Option be cut by 50 per cent because of the enormous effect the original plan had upon training and upon the overloaded aircraft industry. (29 June)
    All domestic radiotelegraph operations were discontinued by U.S. Government order.
    The Army-Navy Communications Production Expediting Agency was established.
    A Progress Section, Production and Procurement Branch, Bureau of Ships, was established to bolster the Navy's electronic production program.
    The Seventh International Radio Conference which had been scheduled to be held in Rome was not convened at that time. It was finally held at Atlantic City, N.J., following the termination of hostilities.
    The Chief of Naval Operations approved cutting back Project Option by 50 percent. (12 Aug.)
    The U.S.S. Cleveland, testing the proximity fuze under simulated battle conditions, destroyed all the three provided drones with four proximity bursts. (12 Aug.)
    The Radio Corp. of America developed a radar "sniffer" for aircraft or drone which could detect a target ahead and cause a torpedo to be launched or a bomb to be dropped at a preselected distance from the target. At the suggestion of Lt. M. B. Taylor, USN, right and left switching was added to make this device "target seeking."
    Mass production of proximity fuzes commenced. Initial cost per fuze was $732. Procurement contracts were let in the amount of $60 million.
    The "maintenance of true bearing" instrument, the "bearing deviation indicator" and the "reverberation gain control" instrument were developed to increase the efficiency of sonar equipments.
    The first Loran System (long range navigation system) was placed in operation with four stations between the Chesapeake Capes and Nova Scotia.
    The expanding scope of electronics necessitated the reestablishment of the Radio and Sound Division, Bureau of Ships.
    The U.S. Government (Office of War Information) took over the operations of short-wave broadcasting stations. (1 Nov.)
    The Army-Navy Communications Production Expediting Agency was reorganized and retitled the Army-Navy Electronics Production Agency (ANEPA).
    The effectiveness of sonar was demonstrated when 1,065 assorted Allied vessels made passages from United States and United Kingdom ports to North Africa with the loss of only 23 ships despite a vigorous submarine offensive.
    Electronics played an important part in the Allied invasion of North Africa.
    Sonar production facilities of the Submarine Signal Co. and the Radio Corp. of America were greatly expanded. Additional companies established facilities and began producing sonar equipment. The Navy began fitting lightweight sonars in torpedo patrol boats, submarine chasers, motorboats and yachts. Bathythermographs were provided vessels for the purpose of locating thermoclines and increasing the efficiency of the use of sonar.
    The Bureau of Ships abandoned a policy of earmarking electronics equipments for a particular activity and established pools of electronics equipment at navy yards and overseas bases.
    Twelve assault drones delivered and underwent Board of Inspection and Survey trials.
    The Secretary of the Navy approved a clarification of the joint agreement between the Chiefs of the Bureaus of Engineering and Aeronautics which stated that the Bureau of Aeronautics controlled and prepared descriptive performance specifications of aircraft electronics equipments. (4 Dec.)
    Comdr. Frank Akers, USN, became Head of the Radio and Electrical Section, Design Branch, Material Division, Bureau of Aeronautics.
    The Secretary of the Navy directed the material bureaus to handle their own contracts for research, development and procurement of technical items under each Bureau's cognizance. Procurement of standard items of a nontechnical nature remained the responsibility of the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. (13 Dec.)


The U.S.S. Helena fired the first proximity fuzes used in combat. (5 Jan.)
    It was recommended that the "airborne remote control bomb" (assault drone) be brought into early action by trained crews and in sufficient numbers to benefit from its surprise use. (8 Mar.)
    The Chief of Naval Operations directed that plans and training for use of the assault drone proceed immediately and rapidly. On this date Project Option was increased to 3,000 drones with a delivery rate of 250 per month to be achieved by June 1944. (23 Mar.)
    The Naval Aircraft Factory was directed to manufacture 100 plywood assault drones and to contract for another hundred to be delivered prior to November 1943. (30 Mar.)
    The Radio Corp. of America completed development of the "supersniffer" which had all the capabilities of the "sniffer" and the added one of being able to search an arc ahead and lock upon a discovered target. The specifications for this device required a range of 2 miles.
    At the request of the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Project Option was cut back to 2,000 assault drones. (12 Apr.)
    The "Chain Broadcasting Regulations" issued by the Federal Communications Commission became effective following a Supreme Court decision upholding their validity.
    Sonobuoys, which could be dropped from planes, and high-frequency direction finder stations were used to guide planes and hunter-killer groups to German submarine wolf packs.
    The Radio and Electrical Branch, Engineering Division, Bureau of Aeronautics, was established.
    Procurement contracts for proximity fuzes totalled $200 million.
    The Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, recommended against the use of the assault drones in his theater of action. This was based upon the lack of available carriers, the low speed and poor maneuverability of the drones and because conventional weapons were winning the war in that area. (22 Sept.)


Captain H. B. Temple, USN, became head of the guided missile program in the Office of Chief of Naval Operations. Following a study of the program, he recommended that it be cut back and changed to a "combat test" program. (15 Feb.)
    The number of assault drones was reduced to a total of 388. No reduction was made in the procurement of electronic equipment since it was planned to use this in obsolete aircraft. (5 Mar.)
    Germany began V-bomb attack on England.
    The Army-Navy Electronics Production Agency (ANEPA) was disestablished despite Navy opposition. This left the Navy with inadequate field expediting services.
    The Radio and Sound Division was reorganized and established as the Electronics Division, Bureau of Ships.
    Bureau of Ships electronic procurement was transferred to a Contract Division. A Contract Planning Section was established in the Equipment Branch of the Electronics Division to provide technical assistance to the Contract Division.
    Approved contractors began fitting newly constructed aircraft with complete electronics installations.
    There were more than 22,000 officers and 225,000 enlisted personnel engaged in U.S. Naval Communications.
    Radio photo (facsimile) equipments were installed at Naval Communications stations at Washington, San Francisco, Pearl Harbor, and Guam.
    Successful tests of radioteletypewriter equipments were conducted on several fleet radio circuits.
    Major fleet radio circuits were equipped with radioteletypewriter equipments.
    The proximity fuze was instrumental in defeating the German V-1 attacks on London and Antwerp.
    A military armistice was signed between the Allies and Italy. (8 Sept.)
    The Allies gained the initiative in the Battle of the Atlantic.
    The German Navy developed and equipped their submarines with snorkels, remained submerged for long periods, ceased using high-frequency radio, and reduced the effectiveness of our antisubmarine measures.
    Proximity fuzes were used against enemy infantry at the Battle of the Bulge and were instrumental in changing the tide of victory. Procurement contracts for the fuze amounted to $300 million for the year 1944.
    The Bureau of Ordnance relieved the Office of Scientific Research Development of all responsibility for the proximity fuze program. The Applied Physics Laboratory continued to administer the program.
    Allies maintained the initiative in the Battle of the Atlantic, sinking 88 submarines and about 100 midgets while losing only 56 ships.


Nine hundred and forty-three broadcasting stations held licenses in the United States. Seven hundred and thirty of those stations were affiliated with broadcast networks. (1 Jan.)
    Nine commercial television stations were in operation. 12 applications for operation of television stations were on file with the Federal Communications Commission.
    T. A. M. Craven was succeeded by Charles R. Denny as a member of the Federal Communications Commission. (14 Mar.)
    Germany unconditionally surrendered to the Allies. (7 May)
    The Federal Communications Commission reported 46 commercial frequency-modulated stations were in regular operation and that they had 403 applications for new frequency-modulated stations on file. (30 May)
    The Federal Communications Commission announced frequency allocations from 10 kc. to 30 mc. for nongovernmental services. These allocations included bands for frequency-modulated transmissions and for television. (27 June)
    The world's first atomic bomb used in offensive operations was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. (6 Aug.)
    An atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
    Japan accepted allied surrender terms. (14 Aug.)
    The War Production Board removed the wartime controls on the manufacture of radio equipment for civilian usage. (20 Aug.)
    The Federal Communications Commission lifted the wartime ban on one amateur radio band.
    The Office of War Information was abolished by Executive order. (31 Aug.)
    Between November 1942 and this date, contracts had been awarded for electronic equipment in the value of $4,009 million. During the same period, deliveries had been made in the amount of $2,538,000. (1 Sept.)
    Formal singing of the surrender document on board the U.S.S. Missouri was transmitted from that ship to the naval radio station, Mare Island, Calif., by radio photo. (1 Sept.)
    The Radio Technical Planning Board was organized to advise government, industry, and the public of the engineering considerations involved in the future utilization of electronics. (15 Sept.)
    The War Production Board announced that $7,680 million was the approximate value of electronic equipment delivered for war purposes between July 1940 and July 1945. More than 550,000 workers in over 1,600 factories contributed to that effort. (5 Oct.)
    The Federal Communications Commission lifted the wartime ban on all amateur radio bands.
    Procurement contracts for the proximity fuze totalled $450 million for the year. Its cost had dropped from $732 each (1942) to $18 each (1945).
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